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Insects on Deciduous Fruit and Tree Nuts in the Home Orchard
1972
--
Schwartz, P. H. Jr., Entomologist
Entomology Research Division
Agricultural Research Service
Home and Garden Bulletin 190, USDA, 1972.
32 pages
Issued May 1972

Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations.

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^"'-•0irt^iiMi^y^
U.S. D1PARTMENT OF AGRICULTURI-HOWE AND GARDEN BULLETIN MO.'190
CONTENTS
Page
Insecticide sprays 2
Precautions 2
Insect and mite pests of deciduous fruits 4

Apple „. 4
Cherry 13
Grape 14
Peach and apricot 16
Pear 18
Plum and prune 20

Insect and mite pests of tree nuts 23
Chestnut 23
Pecan 23

Walnut 25
Beneficial insects , 26
Index 29
Prepared by P. H. SCHWARTZ, JR., entomologist,
Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service.
Washington, D.C. Issued May 1972
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 • Price 40 cents
Stock Number 0100-1387
insects on deciduous
FRUITS and
TREE NUTS in
the home orchard
This bulletin has been prepared especially for home gardeners. It tells
how to recognize the more common insects and mites that attack deciduous
fruits and tree nuts in widespread areas of the United States, excluding
Hawaii and Alaska. It also tells how to prevent damage caused by insect
pests and how to recognize beneficial insects.
With few exceptions, the insecticides recommended for control of these
pests are readily available and have a wide range of uses in the home
orchard. The sprays are easy to prepare. If directions are followed, they
can be used safely.
It is not possible to cover all aspects of the subject in a single bulletin.
If you need additional information, write to your local extension agent,
your State Extension Service, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington, B.C. 20250. Include your return address and ZIP code number.
If you cannot identify the insects or mites that are damaging your plants,
send specimens of the insects or mites (in a small bottle of rubbing alcohol)
to your local extension agent or State Extension Service. Do not send live
insects through the mail.
FOLLOW THE UABEL. '
Color photographs (pp. 7, 8, 21) illustrating leaf roller larva damaging apple, plum cur-
culio adult and egg puncture, lesser peach tree borer larva and injury, and cherry fruit
fly maggots and damage are by courtesy of Dr. R. R. Kriner, New Jersey Cooperative
Extension Service.
1
INSECTICIDE SPRAYS
Few
sprays come ready to use in a material in which the percentage
the home orchard. It is usually nee- of active ingredient differs from that
essary to prepare a spray by mixing shown in the table, mix proportion-
a wettable powder or an emulsifiable ately more or less of it with the
concentrate with water. These ma- water.
terials contain different percentages If you use a wettable powder, stir
of active ingredient ( d i f f e r e n t it vigorously in a small amount of
strengths). water to make a smooth paste, or
The table on page 2 shows how slurry. Add this to the full amount
to mix sprays in the strengths rec- of water, and stir until completely
ommended for control of insects in mixed. When applying wettable-
the home orchard. References to powder sprays, shake the applicator
sprays are under "What to do" head- frequently to keep the powder from
ings, starting on page 4. settling to the bottom of the spray
The table gives proportions for chamber.
mixing a small quantity of spray. If you use an emulsifiable concen-
If you need a larger quantity, use trate, shake the container thorough-
proportionately more of each in- ly before measuring out the amount
gredient in the mixture. If you use needed for the spray mixture.
Insecticide spray formulations and mixing proportions
Amount of formu-
lation to mix with
Insecticide Formulation
1
1 gallon of water
2
Carbaryl 50-percent WP 2 level tablespoons.
Diazinon 50-percent EC 1 teaspoon.
Dicofol —- 50-percent EC 1 teaspoon.
Endosulfan 25-percent EC 2 teaspoons.
Malathion 57-percent EC 1 teaspoon.
Methoxychlor 50-percent WP 2 level tablespoons.
Mineral oil 100-percent EC 10 tablespoons.
Perthane 50-percent WP 4 level teaspoons.
Tetradifon 25-percent WP 6 level tablespoons.
1
WP = wettable powder; EC = emulsifiable concentrate.
2
If the available formulation contains more or less of the indicated active
ingredient, mix proportionately more or less of it with 1 gallon of water.
PRECAUTIONS
Pesticides used improperly can be tainers—out of reach of children
injurious to man, animals, and and pets—and away from foodstuff,
plants. Follow the directions and Apply pesticides selectively and
heed all precautions on the labels. carefully. Do not apply a pesticide
Store pesticides in original con- when there is danger of drift to
other areas. Avoid prolonged in-
halation of a pesticide spray or dust.
When applying a pesticide, it is ad-
visable that you be fully clothed.
Diazinon and endosulfan can be
absorbed directly through the skin
in harmful quantities. When work-
ing with these pesticides in any
form, take extra care not to let them
come in contact with the skin. Wear
protective clothing and respiratory
devices as directed on the label.
The other pesticides mentioned can
be used without special protective
clothing or devices if they are in
dilute form.
After handling a pesticide, do not
eat, drink, or smoke until you have
washed. In case a pesticide is swal-
lowed or gets in the eyes, follow the
first aid treatment given on the
label and get prompt medical at-
tention. If a pesticide is spilled on
skin or clothing, remove clothing
immediately and wash skin thor-
oughly.
Dispose of empty pesticide con-
tainers by wrapping them in several
layers of newspaper and placing
them in your trash can.
It is difficult to remove all traces
of a herbicide (weed killer) from
equipment. Therefore, to prevent
injury to desirable plants do not
use the same equipment for insec-
ticides and fungicides that you use
for a herbicide.
Apply a pesticide only to those
crops on which it is recommended.
Do not apply more than is recom-
mended. Allow a sufficient waiting
period—at least 1 day before a
harvest, or longer if the label speci-
fies. Wash all treated fruits before
eating.
CarbaryL—Do not apply carbaryl
to apple, cherry, pear, plum and
prune within 1 day before harvest;
or to peach and apricot within 3
days before harvest. Do not apply
carbaryl to apple or pear before
30 days after petal fall unless used
for thinning purposes.
Diazinon.—Do not apply diazinon
to cherry and grape within 10 days
before harvest; or to apple and pear
within 14 days before harvest.
Dicofol.—Do not apply dicofol to
apple, cherry, grape, pear, plum and
prune within 7 days before harvest;
or to peach, apricot, chestnut and
pecan within 14 days before harvest.
Do not repeat applications of dicofol
on pear and cherry within 30 days.
Endosulfan.-—Do not apply endo-
sulfan to grape within 7 days before
harvest; or to cherry within 21 days
before harvest; or to apple, apricot,
and peach within 30 days before
harvest. Do not apply endosulfan to
apricot and peach more than two
times during the fruiting period and
do not allow animals to graze in
treated orchards.
Malathion.—Do not apply mala-
thion to pear within 1 day before
harvest; or to apple, cherry, grape,
plum and prune within 3 days be-
fore harvest; or to apricot and peach
within 7 days before harvest. Mala-
thion may injure foliage of some va-
rieties of apple; or Ribur, Italia,
Cardinal, and Almeria varieties of
grape if applied after clusters
appear.
Methoxychlor.—Do not apply
methoxychlor to apple, cherry,
plum and prune within 7 days be-
fore harvest; or to grape within 14
days before harvest; or to apricot
and peach within 21 days before
harvest.
Mineral oil.—Apply mineral oil
to apple and pear during dormancy
when temperature is above 40° F.
Perthane.—Do not apply Per-
thane to cherry within 2 days before
harvest, or to pear within 7 days
before harvest. Do not use Per-
thane in more than two cover sprays
at least 30 days apart.
Tetradifon.—Do not make more
than three applications of tetradifon
to apple, grape, plum and prune
after petal fall or during the fruiting
period; or make more than one ap-
plication to apricot, cherry and
peach after shuck split.
NOTE: Some States have restric-
tions on the use of certain pesticides.
Check your State and local regula-

tions.
Mention of a proprietary product
in this publication is not a guaran-
tee or warranty of the product by
the U.S. Department of Agriculture
and does not imply its approval by
the Department to the exclusion of
other products that may also be
suitable.
INSECT AND MITE PESTS OF DECIDUOUS FRUITS
, 1 Damage.—Leaves become a mass
of webbing and grass.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Aphids
Description.—Tiny; light green,
dark green, or black; soft bodied;
winged or wingless. Cluster on
stems and under leaves.
Damage.-—Cause leaves to curl
and thicken, turn yellow, and die.
(See p. 7 for color illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply diazinon or
malathion when buds show pink, or
when aphids appear.
Apple-cmd-thorn skeletonizer
Description.—Adult: Overwinters
as small dark-brown moth; lays eggs
in early spring. Larva: Caterpil-
lar; feeds on underside of leaves;
later constructs shelters on upper
surface of leaves by drawing leaves
together with silken webbing.
Apple maggot
Description.—Adult: Black fly;
white bands on abdomen; green
eyes; % inch long; lays eggs in
apples. Maggot: Yellowish white;
up to % inch long.
Damage.—Burrows into fruit, dis-
torts its shape, and causes it to rot
and drop prematurely.
Distribution.—Dakotas to New
England and southeastern Canada;
south to Arkansas, Ohio, and
Georgia; uncommon in southern
parts of its range.
What to do.—Apply diazinon or
methoxychlor three or four times,
10 days apart, when flies appear—
usually in late July.
Apple red bug
Description.—Adult: Orange-red;
dark markings; up to *4 inch long.
Nymph: Bright red; smaller than
adult.
Damage.—Punctures fruit causing
spots and deformation.
Distribution.—North Central and
Northeastern States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Bagworm
Description.—Larva: dark brown;
up to 1% inches long; found on
leaves in a conspicuous spindle-
shaped case, or bag. Adult rarely
seen.
Damage.—Eats leaves of fruit
trees.
Distribution.—East of Rocky
Mountains.
What to do.—Remove bags and
burn them. If bags are numerous ap-
ply carbaryl or malathion in May or
June when young bagworms appear.
Cankerworms
Description.—Adults: Males are
gray moths; females are wingless,
plump, and gray. Larvae: Slender,
light- to dark-brown "measuring
worms"; yellowish stripe on sides.
Eggs laid on branches or twigs;
larvae feed on leaves for 3 to 4
weeks, drop to the ground, and pu-
pate. Overwinter as eggs or pupae.
Damage.—Chew on the leaves,
cause defoliation, and weaken the
tree.
Distribution.—Northeastern Unit-
ed States, North Carolina, Missouri,
Montana, Colorado, Utah, Califor-
nia, and Texas.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl
when buds are pink.
Casebearers
Description.—Adults: Small gray
moths; fringed wings. Larvae:
Dark; form cases that are cigar- or
pistol-shaped, brown or gray, and
up to % inch long. Overwinter as
larvae attached to twigs. (See p. 21
for color illustration.)
Damage.—Larvae make many
small holes in buds and leaves.
Distribution.-—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol these insects as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Climbing cutworms
EPQ-1911
Description.—Adults: Moths that
have dark-gray, marked forewings
and lighter hind wings; attracted
to lights. Larvae: Rounded, soft
bodied, and smooth; up to 1%
inches long; curl up tight when dis-
turbed; feed at night.
Damage.—Feed on buds before
leaves form.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol these insects as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Codling moth
Description.—Adult: Grayish-
brown moth; wingspan l/
2
to %
inch. Larva: White or pink; brown
head; up to % inch long. Overwin-
ters as larva in a cocoon under bark
scales, debris, or litter on the
ground. Larva found in fruit near
core.
Damage.—Causes wormy apples
and blemishes, or "stings," on the
skin. (See p. 7 for color illustra-
tion.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply methoxy-
chlor 10 to 14 days after petals fall;
reapply every 10 days while fruit is
developing.
Eye-spotted bud moth
Description.—Adult: Gray; pale-
beige band on forewings. Larva:
Brown; black head; up to
l
/
2
inch
long.
Damage.—Eats buds, blossoms,
and leaves, and spins webs around
them. Reduces fruit production.
Injury to terminal shoots causes a
bushy growth.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when trees are dormant in early
spring, again 10 days after petals
fall, and in midsummer.
Fall webworm
Description.—Adult: White moth;
sometimes has brown or black spots.
Larva: Hairy worm; black and
orange spots; up to 1 inch long;
found in a gray web at tip of branch.
Damage.—Feeds on leaves; some-
times defoliates trees.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Remove the webs
with a pole that has a cone-shaped
brush or several nails on the end of
it. Wind the webs on the end of the
pole and burn the webs. Do not
burn them while they are on the tree
as injury to the tree may result.
Flatheaded apple tree borer
FI-3532
Description.—Adult: Dark brown;
indistinct spots and bands of gray;
underside reddish brown;
l
/
2
inch
long. Larva: Yellowish-white leg-
less grub; U-shaped; broad, flat en-
largement just back of head; up to
l
/2 inch long.
Damage.—Larva feeds between
bark and sapwood or in thick inner

Codling moth wormholes in apple.
Injury by apple maggot.
Leaf roller larva damaging apple.
San Jose scale on Golden Delicious.
Aphid injury to apple leaves. Periodical cicada adult on apple limb.
Scurfy scale on apple twig.
Spider mite damage on apple plant.

Injury by grape berry moth.
Grape flea beetle larva.
Oriental fruit moth damage
to peach twig.
Oriental fruit moth injury on
peach.
Lesser peach tree borer larva and injury.
Plum curculio adult and egg puncture.
bark; sometimes kills young trees;
rarely attacks strong, healthy trees.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.-—Practice good cul-
tural methods to keep tree vigorous.
Remove dying trees, newly cut logs,
and prunings from orchard. Paint
tree wounds with a mixture sold for
this purpose.
Grasshoppers
Description.—Brown, gray, hlack,
or yellow; strong hindlegs; up to 2
inches long; most are strong flyers.
Damage.—Feed on many kinds of
plants.
Distribution.—Continental United
States; especially troublesome in
Central and Northwestern States.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl or
malathion when grasshoppers are
present.
Green fruitworms
Description.—Greenish or green-
ish-white caterpillars that look like
climbing cutworms (p. 5) ; up to l
1
/^
inches long; larves have white or
yellow stripe on each side.
Damage.—Eat leaves and make
large holes in fruit.
Distribution.—Northern United
States.
What to do.—Inseceicides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol these insects as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Japanese beetle
FI-9705
Description,—Adult: Shiny green;
reddish-brown outer wings; oval;
about
l
/2 inch long and % inch wide.
Larva: White, brown head; up to 1
inch long.
Damage.—Adult attacks foliage.
Larva feeds on roots of grasses and
other plants.
Distribution.—Southern Maine
south to Georgia and west to the
Mississippi River.
What to do.—To control the
adults, apply carbaryl, methoxy-
chlor, or malathion to infested foli-
age. Treat infested lawns and turf
with milky disease spores to kill
larvae in the soil. For more infor-
mation, see Leaflet 500, "Milky Dis-
ease for Control of Japanese Beetle
Grubs." To obtain a copy, send
your request on a post card to: The
Office of Information, U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250. Please include your
ZIP code number in your return
address.
Leafhoppers
Description.—Adults: Green;
wedge-shaped; up to % inch long;
fly quickly w h e n d i s t u r b e d .
Nymphs: Similar to adults, but
smaller; crawl sideward like crabs.
Damage.—Cause leaves to curl, or
roll downward, crinkle, and turn
yellow or reddish brown.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do,—Apply malathion
when leafhoppers appear.
Leaf rollers
Description.—Adults: Brown
moths; light markings on wings;
wingspan % inch or more. Larvae:
Pale yellow or dirty green; brown
or black heads; up to % inch long.
Grayish eggs laid on branches in
masses of 10 to 15; overwinter as
eggs. Red-banded leaf roller has
broad reddish-brown band across
wings. (See page 7 for color illustra-
tion.)
Damage.—Larvae feed on buds,
fruit, and leaves; web leaves to-
gether to form a tent; eat irregular
holes in leaves and fruit.
Distribution.—Continental United
States; red-banded leaf roller in
eastern United States and west to
the Mississippi Valley.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when buds begin to separate or
when petals fall; reapply 10 days
and 60 days later.
Oystershell scale and scurfy scale
Description.—Tiny, soft-bodied in-
sects; crawlers (young) move about
on twigs, fruit, and leaves; develop
scales and resemble oystershells or
clamshells.
Damage.—Suck plant juices and
cause reddish spots on leaves and
fruit. (See p. 7 for color illustra-
tion.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol these insects as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Periodical cicadas
Description.—Adults: Black; red
eyes; reddish-brown legs; wing veins
orange except for black "W" pat-
tern near lower edge. Nymphs:
White, pale beige, or light yellow;
resemble small crayfish. (See p. 7
for color illustration.)
Damage.—Adult females damage
twigs and limbs when eggs are laid;
damaged limbs appear rough and
break easily. Nymphs feed on roots
and weaken the tree,
Distribution.—Eastern United
States.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl in
late May or early June when adults
appear; repeat every 3 to 5 days
as needed. Apply in early morning
before cicadas become active.
Red-humped caterpillar and
yellow-necked caterpillar
Description.—Yellow and black
stripes on body; up to 2 inches long;
when disturbed, raise both ends to
form a "U-" Red-humped caterpil-
lar: Red head; bright-red hump on
the back near the head. Yellow-
necked caterpillar: Collar of bright
yellow just behind the head.
Damage.—Young larvae skeleton-
ize leaves; older larvae eat entire
leaf.
10
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when caterpillars appear, usually in
July or August.
Roundheaded apple tree borer
Description.—Adult: Light brown;
two lengthwise white stripes; under-
side, head, and legs are white.
Larva: Pale beige; brown head; ma-
tures in 2 to 3 years. Adults appear
in late spring and lay eggs in bark
crevices on the trunk, from below
the soil line to about 2 feet above
ground.
Damage.—Weakens trees, making
them susceptible to wind damage
and diseases. Kills young trees by
girdling the trunk.
Distribution.—Eastern and South-
western United States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Rust mites
Description.—Very tiny; brown in
winter and white or pale beige in
summer; become active when new
growth starts.
Damage.—Cause fruit and leaves
to turn uniform reddish brown.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply dicofol or
carbaryl when mites appear.
Scales
Description.—Tiny, soft-bodied in-
sects that have a waxy covering;
crawlers (young) appear in mid-
May, move to new feeding sites,
moult, and lose their legs; less than
]/$ inch in diameter.
Damage.—Suck plant juices; cause
discolored (sometimes red) spots on
leaves, stems, and fruit. (See p. 7
for color illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when crawlers are present.
Shot-hole borer
Adult
BN-24202
Damage
FI-4628
Description.—Adult: Dark-brown
or black beetle; cylindrical;
l
/
Q
inch
long. Larva: White; legless; slight-
ly curved. Adult deposits eggs in
bark, in 2-inch-long tunnel bored
parallel to grain of wood. Larva
feeds on inner bark and bores tun-
nel at right angle to original tunnel;
feed 6 to 8 weeks and turns into
11
pupa; when the adult develops, it
bores to the outside.
Damage.—Bark appears pep-
pered, as with birdshot; leaves wilt
and drop. Branches are partly or
completely girdled. Buds dry up
and fall.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Spider mites
TC-7114
Description.—Reddish, greenish,
or brownish; very tiny; found on
underside of leaves.
Damage.—Make yellow specks
and fine webs on leaves; plants and
fruit are stunted. (See p. 7 for
color illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.-—Apply dicofol or
tetradifon twice, 7 to 10 days apart,
when mites appear.
Tent caterpillars
Description.—Adults: yellow, yel-
lowish-brown, or brown moths; ac-
tive near lights at night in June or
July; deposit egg masses in bands
around small twigs. Larvae: Hairy
caterpillars; up to 2 inches long;
construct tents of webbing on
FI-2969
branches in early spring. Pupate in
light-gray silken cocoons under loose
bark and in other sheltered places.
Damage.—Defoliate trees.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
or methoxychlor when caterpillars
appear.
Treehoppers
Description.—Wedge-shaped;
have sharp corners; adults up to
% inch long.
Damage.—Eggs laid in branches
and twigs cause roughened bark and
stunt growth of branches.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply mineral oil
when trees are dormant.
Unspotted and spotted tentiform
leaf miners
Description.—Adults: Small,
golden-brown moths; silvery mark-
12
ings. Larvae: Small worms; found
inside leaves in thread - shaped,
trumpet-shaped, or irregular-shaped
tunnels.
Damage.—Deform leaves and
cause dead areas on them.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when huds are pink or when leaf
miners appear.
Pear leaf blister mite. (See p. 18.)
Plum curculio. ( See p. 23.)

:
'
:
, Cherry V, ' ' '
Black cherry aphid
Description.—Shiny black; soft-
bodied; clusters on underside of
leaves, especially young leaves, and
on stems. Winged adult develops
in midsummer and leaves trees for
other plants; returns in fall to lay
eggs.
Damage.—Causes leaves to curl
up tight; covers leaves with a sticky
honeydew.
Disfrj&uta'oTi.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply diazinon or
endosulfan when aphids appear—
about the time buds are opening, 10
to 14 days later, and in summer, as
needed.
Cherry fruit flies
Description.—Adults: Black, yel-
low bands around body; wings
marked with dark bands; about
one-half as large as a housefly.
Maggots: White; legless; up to %
inch long. (See p. 21 for color
illustration.)
Damage.—Adult females make
small slits in fruit in which to lay
eggs. Larvae begin to feed near pit;
pit separates from the pulp very
easily; later, cherry shrivels on one
side, pulp looks decayed, and small
holes appear in the skin.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply methoxy-
chlor or Perthane when adults ap-
pear, usually around the middle of
May. Apply three or four times, 7
to 10 days apart.
Cherry f ruitworm
Description.—Adult. Small gray-
ish-black moth; wingspan about %
inch. Larva: Whitish-pink worm;
black head; up to % inch long.
Damage.—Larva bores into fruit
and feeds on pulp, causing rough,
brownish areas in the pulp and on
the skin.
Distribution.—Northwestern Unit-
ed States.
What to do.—Apply methoxy-
chlor 4 weeks after petals fall.
Peach tree borer
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 17.
What to do.—Apply endosulfan
to trunks in early July; reapply 3
weeks later. In the South, apply
three more times at 4-week inter-
vals.
Pear thrips
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 19.
13
What to do.—Apply diazinon
when buds show green and, if need-
ed, when flowers begin to open and
again just after bloom.
EPQ-1908
Description.—Gray or tan beetle;
reddish-brown head; long legged
and slender;
l
/
2
inch long.
Damage.—Feeds on foliage, buds,
flowers, and fruit.
Distribution.—Eastern United
States.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl or
methoxychlor when chafers appear.
Rust mites
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 11.
What to do.—Apply dicofol when
mites first appear; repeat if neces-
sary.
Japanese beetle. ( See p. 9.)
Lesser peach tree borer. (See p.
16.)
Pear slug. (Seep. 19.)
Periodical cicadas. (See p. 10.)
Plum curculio. (See p. 23.)
San Jose scale and Forbes scale.
(Seep. 11.)
Shot-hole borer. ( See p. 11.)
Spider mites. (See p. 12.)
European fruit lecanium
Description.—Lives under circu-
lar brown scale on twigs and branch-
es ; scale is up to *4 inch in diameter.
Lays eggs under scale; young settle
on leaves and twigs; all move to
twigs in fall.
Damage.—Weakens vines; se-
cretes honeydew on fruit and leaves;
black fungus grows on honeydew.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when insects are crawling over twigs
and leaves, usually shortly after
bloom.
Gall makers
Description.—Live inside swell-
ings (galls) on leaves and stems.
Larvae: Tiny; greenish yellow, yel-
low, orange, or reddish.
Damage.—Cause unsightly swell-
ings on leaves and canes and weaken
the plant.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Use resistant grape
varieties; remove and burn infested
leaves and canes of susceptible
varieties.
Grape berry moth
Description.—Adult: Brown moth;
wingspan
l
/
2
inch; appears in late
spring or early summer. Larva:
Active, greenish caterpillar; up to
% inch long; constructs cocoon
14
from leaves in June or July; in the
fall the cocoon falls to the ground.
Damage.—Larva feeds on blos-
soms and developing fruit, and later
on pulp and seeds. (See p. 8 for
color illustration.)
Distribution.—Eastern United
States.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl or
diazinon when petals fall and again
in 7 to 14 days; reapply 35 to 40
days after petals fall, and again in
14 days. Keep soil level in winter;
in spring, cover weeds and cocoons
with a smooth, compact ridge of soil.
Grape flea beetle
Description.—Adult: Shiny dark
greenish-blue jumping beetle; about
% inch long. Larva: Light-brown
grub; black spots; up to % inch
long. (See p. 8 for color illustra-
tion.)
Damage.—Feeds on buds and new
leaves,
Distribution.—Eastern two-thirds
of United States.
What to do.—Apply diazinon in
early spring when buds begin to
swell if adults are present; or, apply
when shoots are 6 to 8 inches long if
larvae are present.
Grape mealybug
Description.—Whitish; cottony
white coating; about % inch long
when full grown. Crawlers (young)
present in early spring and again in
early summer; secrete honey dew on
which sooty mold develops.
Damage.—Sucks plant juices and
weakens plants. Fruit and leaves
made unsightly by honeydew and
mold.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
just before or just after bloom when
crawlers are active; repeat in 10
days if needed.
Grape phylloxera
Description.—Resembles an
aphid. Adult: Orange or yellowish
brown; red eyes; winged; up to ^Q
inch long. Young: On foliage is
yellowish, is soft bodied, and lives
inside gall or swelling; on roots is
oval and pale green, green, or brown.
Damage.—Forms galls (swellings)
on leaves and sucks juices from
roots; vines are stunted and some-
times die.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Use resistant varie-
ties to prevent damage to roots.
Specific control measures are gen-
erally not warranted for the foliage
form; insecticides applied to con-
trol other insects usually control the
foliage form as well.
Grape rootworm
Description.—Adult: Hairy,
brown beetle; % inch long. Larva:
White; brown head; hairy; curved.
Damage.—Adult makes chainlike
pattern of holes in leaves; larva
eats small roots, eats pits in larger
roots, and weakens the plant. A
heavy infestation of larvae can kill
a plant.
15
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Grapevine aphid
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 4.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when aphids appear on shoots.
Red-banded leaf roller
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 10.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl just
before bloom, when petals fall, or
when the insects are present, from
mid-April to June.
Rose chafer
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 14.
What to do.—Apply methoxy-
chlor when adults first appear, us-
ually about the time concord grapes
bloom.
Climbing cutworms. (See p. 5.)
Leaf hopper. (Seep. 9.)
Japanese beetle. ( See p. 9.)
Spider mites. (See p. 12.)
Peach and Apricot
Aphids
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 4.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when aphids appear.
Green June beetle
Description.—Adult: Green
beetle; body somewhat flattened; 1
inch long. Larva: White grub that
crawls on its back; up to 1% inches
long.
Damage.—Adult feeds on leaves
and fruit of peaches; larva feeds on
roots of grasses.
Distribution.—Southern United
States, and north to Long Island
and southern Illinois.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl
when adults appear on fruit.
Leaf rollers
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 10.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl
when leaf rollers become active
about July 1.
Lesser peach tree borer
Description.—Adult: Shiny blue-
black moth; transparent wings that
have whitish and yellowish mark-
ings. Larva: White; brown head;
up to 1 inch long. (See p. 8 for
color illustration.)
Damage.—Larva bores holes in
trunk and branches, weakening
them; causes masses of sawdust and
brown gum on trunk and branches.
Generally attacks trees that have
wounds or that have split.
What to do.—Apply endosulfan
to trunk and branches in April in
the South and in May in the North;
apply it four times, 3 weeks apart.
Reapply in August and September
in the South.
16
Remove any broken, diseased, or
dead limbs. Treat tree wounds
promptly.
Oriental fruit moth
Description.—Adult: Inconspicu-
ous gray moth; wingspan
l
/
2
inch.
Larva: pink worm; brown head; up
to y
2
inch long.
Damage.—Bores into twigs and
new shoots and kills them; bores
into stem end of fruit and eats the
pulp. Sometimes, fruit does not
show damage. Increases trees' sus-
ceptibility to disease. (See p. 8 for
color illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl 10
to 12 days after petals fall; reapply
twice at 10-day intervals. If need-
ed, apply again 6 weeks before har-
vest, or when peaches are about the
size of walnuts; reapply 3 weeks
later.
Peach tree borer
Description.—Adult: Bluish
black; yellow or orange bands
around body; transparent wings.
Larva: Yellowish white or pale
beige; dark-brown head; up to 1
inch long.
Damage.—Larva feeds on growing
tissues of trunk, usually just below
soil level. Gum oozes from holes
made by larva. Trees become weak
and
die.
Distribution.—Continental United
States, except the Far West.
What to do.—Before planting, dip
roots of nursery-grown trees in a
mixture of 12 tablespoons of 25-
percent endosulf an emulsifiable con-
Larvae
FI-3077
centrate per gallon of water. Apply
endosulfan to trunks of established
trees at the dose recommended in
the table on page 2. Apply it im-
mediately after harvest and again
3 weeks later.
Peach twig borer
Description.—Adult: Gray moth;
wingspan % to
l
/
2
inch. Larva:
Reddish brown or dark brown;
black head; up to
l
/
2
inch long.
Damage.—Larva feeds inside
twigs, new shoots, and fruit. Twigs
die and gum oozes from them.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply endosulfan
just before bloom and when petals
fall.
17
Rose chafer
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 14.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Stink bugs
Description.—Adults: Brown,
green, or hlack; sometimes have
markings; shield shaped; up to %
inch long and % inch wide.
Nymphs: Resemble adults but are
smaller. Give off a foul odor.
Damage,—Suck sap and weaken
the plants; buds and fruit do not
develop normally (called catfacing)
and sometimes drop. (See p. 8 for
color illustration).
Distribution.—Continental United
States; most prevalent in the South.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl
when petals fall; reapply two or
three times, 10 days apart.
Tarnished plant bug
Description.—Adult: Brown, tan,
or green; % inch long; appears
rusty. Nymph: Yellow or green;
very tiny at first; grows to about
% inch.
Damage.—Attacks blossoms, buds,
fruit, and twigs; fruit does not de-
velop normally (called catfacing),
and new shoots die back. (See
p. 8 for color illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
American plum borer. (See p.
20.)
Climbing cutworms. (Seep. 5.)
Grasshoppers. (See p. 9.)
Japanese beetle. (See p. 9.)
Mites. (Seep. 11.)
Periodical cicadas. (Seep. 10.)
Plum curculio. (See p. 23.)
Scales. (Seep. 11.)
Shot-hole borer, ( See p. 11.)
".'•" / Pear ;' ', ' •
Aphids
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 4.
What to do.—Apply diazinon
or malathion when aphids become
abundant.
Codling moth
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 6.
What to do.—Apply carbaryl 2
weeks after petals fall; reapply two
or three times, 2 weeks apart.
Forbes scale and San Jose scale
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 11.
What to do.—Apply mineral oil
in early spring before ^/2 inch of
green shows in flower buds and be-
fore two leaves unfold in back of the
buds.
Pear leaf blister mite
Description.—Tiny; whitish;
shaped like a worm.
18
Damage.—Produces small galls
that look like blisters on leaves,
buds, and fruit; fruit turns rust col-
ored, is deformed, and sometimes
cracks open. (See p. 21 for color
illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply diazinon in
early fall after harvest. Apply min-
eral oil when buds are swelling in
early spring.
Pear midge
Description.—Adult: Tiny fly that
resembles a mosquito. Larva: Pale-
beige or pale-orange maggot.
Damage.—Lays eggs in swelling
buds; maggot feeds inside young
fruit, and causes it to be deformed
and to drop prematurely.
Distribution.—Northeastern Unit-
ed States.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Pear psylla
Description.—Adult: Dark red-
dish brown; transparent wings that
slope over the body; % inch long.
Young: Yellowish; flattened; cov-
ered with honeydew; as it grows
becomes greenish or brownish black.
Damage.—Skin of the fruit be-
comes scarred and blackened with
sooty mold that grows on the honey-
dew. Brown spots appear on the
leaves. This insect also spreads dis-
eases of fruits. (See p. 21 for color
illustration.)
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply Perthane
when psyllas are numerous.
Pear slug
FI-3075
Description.—Adult: Shiny-black
sawfly; about % inch long. Larva:
Olive green, dark green, or black;
resembles a snail or slug; up to
l
/2
inch long.
Damage.—Larva makes nets on
the upper surface of leaves, retards
growth and development of fruit,
and weakens the tree.
Distrib ution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Handpick larvae
from leaves and kill them.
Pear thrips
Description.—Adult: Black;
about %
6
inch long; feathery wings.
Nymph: White; resembles adult.
Overwinters 5 to 7 inches deep in
soil inside a small cell.
Damage.—Attacks buds in early
spring; buds shrivel and turn brown.
Lays eggs in blossoms and causes
fruit to drop.
Distribution.—Pacific Coast, New
York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland.
What to do.—Apply diazinon
when half of the flower buds show
about %e inch of green.
19
Syneta leaf beetle
Description,—Adult: Pale-brown
or yellowish beetle; about % inch
long. Larva: Small grub; plump,
curved body.
Damage.—Adult scars and de-
forms fruit; occasionally feeds on
fruit stems and causes fruit to drop.
Grub burrows into ground and feeds
on tree roots.
Distribution.—Far western United
States.
What to do—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific con-
trol measures are generally not
warranted.
Climbing cutworms. (See p. 5.)
Fruitworms. ( See p. 9.)
Grasshoppers. ( See p. 9.)

Pear rust mite. ( See p. 11.)
Periodical cicadas. (See p. 10.)

Plum curculio. (See p. 23.)
Roundheaded apple tree borer.
(See
p.
11.)
Scurfy scale. (See p. 10.)
Shot-hole Borer. (See p. 11)

Spider mites. (See p. 12.)
Treehoppers. (Seep. 12.)
American plum borer
Description—Adult: Inconspicu-
ous grayish moth; wingspan about
1 inch. Larva: Pinkish, orange, yel-
low, or greenish worm; up to 1 inch
long.
Damage.—Larva burrows next to
sapwood and causes large dead areas
in bark; dirty sawdust accumulates
outside burrow.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Dig the larvae out
of the burrows with a knife. Paint
wounds with a mixture sold for this
purpose.
Eye-spotted bud moth
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 6.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Forbes scale and San Jose scale
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 11.
What to do.—Apply malathion or
carbaryl when crawlers are present.
Oystershell scale
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 10.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific con-
trol measures are generally not
warranted.
Peach tree borer
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 17.
What to do.—Apply paradichlo-
robenzene crystals around the trunk
in a ring 1 to l
l
/
2
inches wide and
1 to I
l
/2 inches from the trunk in
late August or early September in
the North, and in late August to late
20

nage
Pear leaf blister mite damage.
Casebearer larva and case.
Hickory shuckworm larva. Pecan weevil adult.
Black pecan aphid
damage.
Walnut caterpillar larvae feeding on leaflet. Cherry fruit fly maggots and
damage.
21

,m
m
BENEFICIAL
INSECTS
Aphid lion larva.
Syrphid fly larva.
22
October in the South. You will need
to use
l
/2 to I
l
/2 ounces of crystals.
Peach twig borer
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 17.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific con-
trol measures are generally not
warranted.
Plum curculio
Description—Adult: Small brown
snout beetle; brown markings; four
prominent, dark humps on wing
covers. Larva: Whitish; brown
head; up to % inch long; legless;
slightly curved. (See page 8 for color
illustration.)
Damage.—Adult feeds on fruit in
spring; makes crescent-shaped cuts
in fruit in which to lay eggs. Larva
makes tunnels in fruit.
Distribution.—East of the Rocky
Mountains.
What to do.—Apply methoxy-
chlor when petals begin to fall; re-
apply once or twice, 7 to 10 days
apart.
Plum rust mite
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 11.
What to do.—Apply dicof ol when
mites first appear.
Spider mites
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 12.
What to do.—Apply dicofol or
tetradifon in summer; reapply in 7
to 10 days if needed.
Lesser peach tree borer. (See p.
16.)
Shot-hole borer. (See p. 11.)
INSECT AND MITE PESTS OF TREE NUTS
Chestnut
Mites
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 11.
What to do.—Apply dicofol when
mites are numerous; reapply in 7 to
10 days.
Weevils
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 24.
What to do.—Presently, there are
no insecticides available to control
this pest in the home orchard. In-
festation can be reduced by gather-
ing the nuts daily when they begin
to fall. Store these nuts in such a
way that none of the emerging larvae
can escape. If all of the newly
emerged larvae are destroyed for a
period of 3 to 4 consecutive years,
the weevil population will be re-
duced to a tolerable level.
Paeon
Aphids
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 4. (See page 21
for color illustration of damage.)
23
What to do.—Apply malathion
when yellow spots appear on foli-
age.
Hickory shuckworm
Description.—Adult: Inconspicu-
ous dark moth. Larva: Pale beige
or grayish white; brownish head; up
to % inch long. (See p. 21 for color
illustration.)
Damage.—Larva tunnels inside
nuts and destroys the kernels. After
shells harden, larva tunnels into
shucks. Causes nuts to drop and be
poorly filled, shucks to stick to nuts,
and shells to be stained badly.
Distribution. — Southeastern
United States, west to Texas.
What to do.—Gather and destroy
pecan shucks at harvest.
Leaf miners
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 12.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol these insects as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Pecan bud moth
Description.—Adult: Small gray
moth; blackish-brown patches on
front wings. Larva: Yellowish
green; dark-brown head and neck;
up to % inch long.
Damage.—Larva feeds on leaves
and terminal buds, bores into young
nuts in the spring, and infests the
shucks in the fall.
Distribution.—Southeastern and
south-central United States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
four or five times, 2 to 3 weeks apart,
when insects appear.
Pecan leaf casebearer and
pecan nut casebearer
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 5.
What to do.—Pecan leaf case-
bearer : Apply malathion when buds
begin to open, or when insects ap-
pear from late June to August. Pe-
can nut casebearer: Apply mala-
thion when larvae begin to enter
nuts, usually between April 20 and
May 25; reapply in 7 days if needed.
Pecan phylloxera
Description.—Small and soft-
bodied; resembles an aphid.
Damage.—Causes galls or swell-
ings that develop around the insects.
In late May or early June galls split
open and release the insects.
Distribution.— Southeastern and
south-central United States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when trees are dormant or until buds
are 2 inches long.
Pecan weevil
Description.-—Adult: Brownish
beetle;
l
/
2
inch long; long beak.
Larva: Whitish grub; up to
l
/
2
inch
long; about % inch in diameter.
(See p. 21 for color illustration.)
Damage.—Causes immature, soft-
shelled nuts to drop. Eats kernels
of hard-shelled nuts and causes
shucks to stick to shells.
Distribution. — Southeastern
United States.
24
What to do.—Spread sheets under
trees; jar limbs with pole to dislodge
weevils; place weevils in a bucket
or can that contains kerosene. Begin
jarring trees the first week in Au-
gust ; repeat once a week until about
September 15.
Spittlebugs
Description.—Adults: Brown or
gray markings; wedge-shaped; jump
or fly quickly when disturbed.
Young: Pinkish, orange, yellow, or
yellowish green; up to %g inch
long; produce masses of white froth
or spittle.
Damage.—Young suck juices from
buds, shoots, and nut clusters and
cause trees to be stunted and dis-
torted.
Distribution.—Northern Florida,
the Gulf Coast, and parts of Ken-
tucky and Illinois.
What to do.—Apply malathion on
foliage when masses of spittle are
seen.
Stink bugs
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 18.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol these insects as well. Specific
control measures are generally not
warranted.
Twig girdler
Description.—Adult: Brown
beetle; about
l
/
2
inch long. Larva:
White, legless grub.
Damage.—Larva tunnels into
twigs; sometimes girdles twigs and
kills them.
Distribution.— Southeastern and
south-central United States.
What to do.—Gather and burn
broken branches in late fall, winter,
or early spring. Destroy infested
branches from nearby hickory and
persimmon trees.
Walnut caterpillar
For description, damage, and dis-
tribution, see page 25.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when caterpillars first appear.
Fall webworm. (See p. 6.)
Curculios
Description.-—Adults: Beetles; *4
inch long; long curved snouts;
prominent humps and ridges on
wing covers. Larvae: White, legless
worms; brown heads; up to % inch
long. Resemble the pecan weevil.
Damage.—Adults feed on newly
formed nuts and new foliage. Fe-
males lay eggs in nuts and cause nuts
to drop before they mature.
Distribution.—-Continental United
States.
What to do.—Collect all prema-
turely dropped nuts and burn them
immediately to destroy the develop-
ing larvae.
Walnut caterpillar
Description.—Adult: Brown
moth; wingspan about 2 inches.
Larva: Black caterpillar; white
hairs; raises both ends of body when
disturbed; up to 2 inches long. (See
p. 21 for color illustration.)
25
Damage.—Feeds in groups on the
leaves and causes defoliation.
Distribution.—Most of Eastern
United States, and west to Kansas.
What to do.—Insecticides applied
to control other insects usually con-
trol this insect as well. Specific con-
trol measures are generally not
warranted.
Walnut husk maggot
Description.—Adult: Pale yellow
fly; brown eyes; stiff brown hairs on
abdomen; transparent wings that
have dark stripes. Larva: White or
pale-beige maggot; up to
l
/
2
inch
long.
Damage.—Maggot feeds in husks
of maturing nuts and reduces the
quality of the kernels.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do. — Apply malathion
when flies appear, usually in early
July in the South and in late July in
the North.
Walnut lace bug
EPQ-1909
Description.—Fragile; resembles
a fly; lacy wings; % inch long.
Damage.—Sucks plant juices;
leaves turn gray and yellow and nuts
are poorly filled; leaves sometimes
drop and tree becomes weak.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
What to do.—Apply malathion
when nuts are the size of peas or
marbles. Repeat if necessary.
Fall web worm. (See p. 6.)
BENEFICIAL INSECTS
Some insects cause no damage to
plants and are beneficial to man.
They destroy other insects that are
injurious to fruits.
Learn to recognize these beneficial
insects, and avoid destroying them.
Following are descriptions of a few
of the important beneficial insects.
Ant lion (doodlebug)
Description.—Brown; rough;
sickel-shaped jaws; up to
l
/
2
inch
long. Lives at bottom of core-shaped
pit in sand.
Benefit.—Feeds on ants and other
insects.
Distribution.—Many parts of the
United States; most abundant in the
South.
Aphid lion (lacewing)
Description.—Adult: Gauzy green
wings; yellow eyes; fragile; hair-
like antennae; deposits eggs singly
on stalk. Larva: Yellowish, or mot-
tled red or brown; long, narrow
body that tapers at both ends; large,
sickle-shaped jaws; prominent, pro-
26
jecting hairs; about % inch long.
(See p. 22 for color illustration.)
Benefit.—Larva feeds on aphids,
mealybugs, scales, thrips, and mites.
Distribution.-—Continental United
States.
Assassin bugs
BN-14756
Description.—Light brown; long
legs;
l
/2 to % inch long; walk over
plants slowly and clumsily; hold
forelegs in prayer-like position and
use them to capture and hold their
prey.
Benefit.—Feed on immature forms
of insects.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
Damsel bugs
Description.—Resemble assassin
bugs; pale gray; about % inch long;
use forelegs to capture prey.
Benefit.—Feed on aphids, flea-
hoppers, and small larvae of other
insects.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
Ground beetles
Description.—Adults: Usually dull
black or brown; long, oval bodies;
narrow heads; usually found on
ground under stones or loose trash;
hide by day and are active at night;
run rapidly when disturbed. Lar-
vae: Slender, flattened bodies that
taper slightly at the tail; two spines
or bristles at hind end.
Benefit.—Feed on caterpillars and
other insects.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
Lady beetles
Description.—Adults: Shiny red
or tan; some have black spots; oval;
about 14 inch long. Larvae: Blue,
orange, or gray; carrot-shaped;
warty; %Q to *4 inch long. (See
p. 22 for color illustration.)
Benefit.—Feed on aphids, spider
mites, scales, and mealybugs.
Distribution.—Continental United
States. ^ -
•//
Minute pirate bugs
BN-14754
Description.—Adults: Generally
black, marked with white spots or
streaks; oval; flat; about %
6
inch
long. Nymphs: Similar to adults;
yellowish brown. Found on flowers
and under loose bark.
Benefit.—Feed on small insects
and on mites; feed on eggs and lar-
vae of many kinds of insects.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
27
Praying mantis
BN-14753
Description.—Green; green wings
that have brown front edges; large
ahdomens; slender thoraxes; wedge-
shaped; movahle heads; large front
legs that have spines for grasping
prey; 2
l
/
2
to 5 inches long. Eggs
laid in fall in masses on shrubs or
tall grass, and covered with froth
that hardens. Young hatch in
spring; resemble adults, but are
wingless.
Benefit.—Young feed on aphids
and other small insects. Adults feed
on many kinds of larger insects.
Distribution.—Continental United
States; most numerous in the North-
east.
Spiders and mites
Description.—Range in size from
orb-weaving black-and-yellow gar-
den spiders and large hunting
spiders that have leg spreads of 2
inches or more to very tiny preda-
ceous mites. Some spiders have
hairy bodies and legs; others are
smooth and shiny; they are black,
brown, yellow and black, or gray.
Predaceous mites are gray or pink-
ish gray. Some spiders construct
webs for snaring prey; others run
or jump to capture prey.
Benefit.—Suck body juices of
other insects. Large web-spinning
spiders attack large flying and crawl-
ing insects; small hunting and jump-
ing spiders attack small insects—
flies, beetles, caterpillars, aphids,
and leafhoppers. Predaceous mites
feed on spider mites, cyclamen mites,
aphids, and thrips, and on larvae
and eggs of many kinds of insects.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
Syrphid flies
Description.—Adults: Bright yel-
low and black; *4 to % inch long;
hover above flowers and plants.
Larvae: Resemble slugs; brown,
gray, or mottled. (See p. 22 for
color illustration.)
Benefit.—Larvae eat insects; sin-
gle larva can eat one aphid per min-
ute.
Distribution.—Continental United
States.
Wasps
C&F-3869
Description.—Vary widely in size,
color, and general body structure;
some are parasites; others, preda-
tors.
Benefit.—Tiny parasitic wasps lay
eggs in bodies of insects; developing
larvae kill the hosts. Large preda-
ceous wasps—well known to every
gardener—sting caterpillars to par-
alyze them, and feed them to their
young.
Distrib ution.—Continental United
States.
28
INDEX
Page
Apple:
Aphids 4
Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer 4
Apple maggot 4
Apple red bug 5
Bagworm 5
Cankerworms 5
Casebearers 5
Climbing cutworms 5
Codling moth 6
Eye-spotted bud moth 6
Fall webworm 6
Flatheaded apple tree borer 6
Grasshoppers 9
Green fruitworms 9
Japanese beetle 9
Leafhoppers 9
Leaf rollers 10
Oystershell scale and Scurfy scale 10
Periodical cicadas 10
Red-humped caterpillar 10
Roundheaded apple tree borer 11
Rust mites 11
Scales 11
Shot-hole borer 11
Spider mites 12
Spotted tentiform leaf miner 12
Tent caterpillars 12
Treehoppers 12
Unspotter tentiform leaf miner 12
Yellow-necked caterpillar 10
Beneficial insects
Ant lion (doodlebug) 26
Aphid lion (lacewing) 26
Assassin bugs 27
Damsel bugs 27
Ground beetles 27
Lady bettles 27
Minute pirate bugs 27
Praying mantis 28
Spiders and mites 28
Syrphid flies 28
Wasps 28
Cherry:
Black cherry aphid 13
Cherry fruit flies 13
Page
Cherry—con.
Cherry fruitworm 13
Forbes scale 11
Japanese beetle 9
Lesser peach tree borer 16
Peach tree borer 11
Pear slug 19
Pear thrips 19
Periodical cicadas 10
Plum curculio 23
Rose chafer 14
Rust mites 11
San Jose scale 11
Shot-hole borer 11
Spider mites 12
Chestnut:
Mites 11
Weevils 24
Grape:
European fruit lecanium 14
Gall makers 14
Grape berry moth 14
Grape flea beetle 15
Grape leafhopper 9
Grape mealybug 15
Grape phylloxera 15
Grape rootworm 15
Grapevine aphid 4
Japanese beetle 9
Red-banded leaf roller 10
Rose chafer 14
Spider mites 12
Peach and apricot:
American plum borer 20
Aphids 4
Climbing cutworms 5
Grasshoppers 9
Green June beetle 16
Japanese beetle 9
Leaf rollers 10
Lesser peach tree borer 16
Mites 11
Oriental fruit moth 17
Peach tree borer 17
Peach twig borer 17
Periodical cicadas 10
29
Page
Peach and apricot—con.
Plum curculio 23
Rose chafer 14
Scales 11
Shot-hole borer 11
Stink hugs 18
Tarnished plant bug 18
Pear:
Aphids 4
Climbing cutworms 5
Codling moth 6
Forbes scale 11
Fruitworms 9
Grasshoppers 9
Pear leaf blister mite 18
Pear midge 19
Pear psylla 19
Pear rust mite 11
Pear slug 19
Pear thrips 19
Periodical cicadas 10
Plum curculio 23
Roundheaded apple tree borer 11
San Jose scale 11
Scurfy scale 10
Shot-hole borer 11
Spider mites 12
Syneta leaf beetle 20
Treehoppers 12
Pecan:
Aphids 4
Fall webworm 6
Page
Pecan—con.
Hickory shuekworm 24
Leaf miners 12
Pecan bud moth 24
Pecan leaf casebearer 5
Pecan nut casebearer 5
Pecan phylloxera 24
Pecan weevil 24
Spittlebugs 25
Stink bugs 18
Twig girdler 25
Walnut caterpillar 25
Plum and prune:
American plum borer 20
Eye-spotted bud moth 6
Forbes scale 11
Lesser peach tree borer 16
Oystershell scale 10
Peach tree borer 17
Peach twig borer 17
Plum curculio 23
Plum rust mite 11
San Jose scale 11
Shot-hole borer 11
Spider mites 12
Walnut:
Curculios 25
Fall webworm 6
Walnut caterpillar 25
Walnut husk maggot 26
Walnut lace bug 26
30
U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OFFICE: 1971 O 425-449