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Family Fare, Food Management and Recipes

Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics
Agricultural Research Administration
Home and Garden Bulletin 1, USDA, 1950.
Issued February 1950
95 pages

Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations.

The PDF file was provided courtesy of the National Agricultural Library.

Scroll down to view the publication.
Agricultural Network Information Center

food management
and recipes

Home and Garden Bulletin No. 1
& S. D E P A R T M E N T OF A G R I C U L T U R E

You ... and your family's food. 1
Nutrition up-to-date . . . up to
you.... 2
Food's three big jobs 2
Body's needs, A to Z 2
Protein 3
Calcium 3
Iron 4
Iodine 4
Vitamins in general 5
Vitamin A 5
The B-vitamin family 6
Vitamin C 7
Vitamin D 7
Fuel 8
Controlling weight 9
Finding out what's in foods. • • 10
Up to
Serving by serving . . . foods
provide for daily needs — • 11
Have a food plan 12
A ready-made food plan.... 12
Ways to use this plan 12
To figure your family's needs. 13
Your food and your money... 13
What's in each food group. • • 16
Servings and pounds 19
Smart buying 21
Meat.. 21
Poultry... 22
Fish 23
Eggs ;... 24
Fresh vegetables and fruits.... 25
Canned and froien foods... 26
Wise storing 27
Main dishes 29
Meat 29
Poultry 39
Fish 44
Eggs, cheese, dry beans 48
Vegetables 54
Salads and salad dressings. 62
Soups 67
Sauces, gravies 70
Breads and sandwiches 73
Desserts 78
Ways to use left-overs 88
Cooking terms 90
One ingredient for another 92
Measures and temperatures.... 93
Index to recipes 94

• • •
and your family's food
Are you one of this country's 33,000,000 homemakers—
and trying to do a blue-ribbon job of feeding a family well?
If so, you know that your task is vital to family health and
important to happiness, and it isn't easy. You have a
4-point food program:
To serve enjoyable meals.
To keep your family well nourished.
To practice thrift when need be.
To save time and energy where you can.
This booklet offers suggestions and other helps that take these combined
problems into account.
The nutrition section aims to bring the homemaker up-to-date quickly and
to show the importance of food for health.
The food planning section shows an orderly way to provide meals that
contain the vitamins and other nutrients in the quantities which different
individuals need.
The cooking principles are modern—designed to conserve the nourishment
as well as the appetite appeal in the food. The recipes offer a selection of
stand-bys and special dishes. Timesaving short cuts are given, and suggestions
for fitting many of the recipes into a lunch, dinner, or supper.
In the sections on food buying, storing, measuring, there are pointers on thrift.
869142°—50 1 1

. . . up to
Nutrition is the science that deals with food at work—food on the job for you.
Modern knowledge of food at work brings a new kind of mastery over life.
When you—and your family—eat the right food, it does far more than just
keep you alive and going.
The right food helps you to be at your best in health and vitality. It can
even help you to stay young longer, postponing old age. An individual well
fed from babyhood has a more likely chance to enjoy a long prime of life.
But at any age, you are better off when you are better fed.
Food's three big jobs
1. Food provides materials for the body's building and repair.
Protein and minerals (and water) are what tissue and bone are
chiefly made of. Children must have these food materials to
grow on; and all life long the body continues to require
supplies for upkeep.
2. Food provides regulators that enable the body to use other
materials and to run smoothly. Vitamins do important work
in this line, and minerals and protein too.
3. Food provides fuel for the body's energy and warmth. There
is some fuel in every food.
Body's needs, A to Z
From vitamin A to the mineral zinc, a list of nutrients—chemical substances
that the body is known to require from food—would total more than 40.
And there may be some not yet detected.
You can put nutrition knowledge to use without being introduced to all of
the body's A to Z needs. When daily meals provide sufficiently for the fol-
lowing key nutrients, you can be reasonably sure of getting the rest.

Protein was named from a Greek word meaning "first."
Nearly a hundred years ago, it was recognized as the main
substance in all of the body's muscles and organs, skin, hair,
and other tissues. No simple substance could build and renew
such different tissues, and protein has proved to be complex
and varied.
Protein in different foods is made up of varying combina-
tions of 22 simpler materials called amino acids. If need be,
the body can make its own supply of more than half of these
amino acids. But the remaining amino acids must come
ready-made from food. And to get the best use from these
special ones, the body needs them all together, either in one
food or in some combination of foods.
The best quality proteins have all of these especially im-
portant amino acids, and worth-while amounts of each.
You get top-rating proteins in foods from animal sources,
as in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese. Some of these
protein foods are needed each day; and it is an advantage to
include some in each meal.
Next best for proteins are soybeans and nuts and dry
beans and peas. When these are featured in main dishes,
try to combine them with a little top-rating protein food, if
The rest of the protein required will then come from cereals,
bread, vegetables, and fruits. Many American-style dishes,
such as meat and vegetable stew, egg sandwiches, macaroni
and cheese, cereal and milk, are highly nourishing combina-
tions. For in the body's remarkable chemistry, the high-grade
proteins team with the less complete proteins in many com-
panion foods and make the latter more useful than if eaten
Calcium is one of the chief mineral materials in bones and
teeth. About 99 percent of all the calcium in the body is
used for framework. Small but important, the other 1 per-
cent remains in body fluids, such as the blood. Without this
calcium, muscles can't contract and relax and nerves can't
carry their messages.

For calcium to be used properly, other substances are needed
too in right quantities, vitamin D and phosphorus, for example.
Many people go through life with bones that are calcium-
poor. If a child gets too little calcium in his food or if his
bones fail to deposit the calcium properly, then the bones will
be smaller than they should be, or malformed as when legs are
bent in rickets. Older people who are calcium-poor may
have brittle bones that break easily and mend slowly. Whether
you are young or old, it's a good thing for diet to be calcium-
The outstanding food for calcium is milk. You can hardly
get enough calcium without using a good deal of milk in some
form. Next-best foods for calcium are some of the leafy green
vegetables—notably turnip tops, mustard greens, and kale.
One of the essential materials for red blood cells is iron.
Without its iron supply, the blood could not carry oxygen
from the lungs to each body cell.
When meals are varied, you get some iron from many
different foods. Liver is outstanding for iron. And one good
reason for eating leafy green vegetables is their iron content.
Some of the other foods that add iron are egg yolks, meat in
general, peas and beans of all kinds, dried fruits, molasses,
bread and other cereal foods made from the whole grain
or enriched.
Your body must have small but steady amounts of iodine
to help the thyroid gland to work properly. The most
familiar bad effect of getting too little iodine is a swelling of
the gland, called goiter.
Along the sea coast, and in some other parts of the United
States, iodine is contained in the drinking water and vege-
tables and fruits grown in local soil. But too little iodine in
water and soil is the cause of a wide "goiter belt" across
the country, particularly around the Great Lakes and in
northwestern States.
It is well to plan for iodine, particularly if you live inland.
Eating salt-water fish or other food from the sea at least once

a week will help. But the best line of defense is to use iodized
table salt regularly. In this kind of table salt, the iodine lost
from natural salt in refining is restored.
One point of warning must be added. Using iodized salt
regularly can prevent simple goiter, but it may be harmful to
a goiter far-advanced. If in doubt about its use, see a
competent physician.
Vitamins in general
Nearly 20 vitamins that are known or believed to be im-
portant to human well-being have thus far been discovered.
A few more vitamins are known to be important to such
creatures as fish, chickens, or insects, but not to people.
When you eat a variety of food you are pretty sure of getting
a well-rounded assortment of the vitamins you need—except
perhaps vitamin D. And you may also be getting other
vitamins still undetected in food, but serving you just the same.
Separate doses of one or more selected vitamins are best
taken under doctors' orders. For research is showing more
and more instances in which a vitamin or other nutrient seeks
a different nutrient in a meal as a special partner to assist in
its work. When a vitamin pill brings in a mass army, the
right partners may not be ready to use so much specialized
The following vitamins are of practical importance in
planning family meals.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is important to the young for growth. And at
all ages it is important for normal vision, especially in dim
In one way or another, many vitamins help protect the body
against infection, and vitamin A's guard duty is to help keep
the skin and the linings of nose, mouth, and inner organs in
good condition. If these surfaces are weakened, bacteria can
invade more easily.
You can get vitamin A from some animal foods. Good
sources are liver, egg yolks, butter, whole milk and cream, and
cheese made from whole milk or cream. Fish-liver oils which
children take for vitamin D are rich in vitamin A besides.

From many vegetable foods you can get carotenes, which
are yellow-orange substances that the body converts into
vitamin A. Green, yellow, and some red vegetables are good
sources of carotene. One good reason for including a vege-
table from the "leafy, green, and yellow group" every day is
to keep stocked with this vitamin. Margarine, a vegetable
fat, is nearly always fortified with vitamin A or carotene.
Some vitamin A can be stored in the body. So it is to your
advantage to eat heartily of foods that provide for it, such as
the green and yellow vegetables. A savings account of vitamin
A in your system may be drawn upon, if in any emergency
this vitamin is wanting in the diet.
The B-vitamin family
There was once supposed to be just one vitamin B. Then,
vitamin B was found to be complex and it has in time been
separated into about a dozen vitamins, each with particular
duties and importance. Most of them are now called by
names that tell something about their chemical nature.
Thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin are the most generally
known and best understood B's. Getting enough of these in
food helps with steady nerves, normal appetite, good digestion,
good morale, healthy skin.
When these B's are seriously wanting in diet, malnutrition
ills such as beriberi and pellagra follow. But far more common
in this country are borderline cases. The chronic grouch, the
lazybones, the nervous man, the housewife with vague com-
plaints, may be showing effects of food providing too little of
these important B's.
Recently identified B's are folic acid and vitamin B
, both
important for healthy state of the blood. Folic acid and B
are being used medically with success in treating two hard-
to-cure diseases—pernicious anemia and sprue.
Few foods contain real wealth of B vitamins, but in a varied
diet many foods contribute some and so build an adequate
One way to make sure of raising your B level is to use
regularly bread and flour that have been made from whole
grain or that have been enriched so as to restore important
B vitamins.
Getting ample milk in diet is important for B's, too, and for
riboflavin in particular.

B vitamins play a part in converting fuel in foods into energy.
It follows that any one who eats large quantities of starches
and sugars also requires more food containing B vitamins.
Vitamin C
The first vitamin separated out from food was vitamin C,
now also called ascorbic acid. Tissues throughout the body
can't keep in good condition without vitamin G.
When diet is very low in this vitamin, gums are tender and
bleed easily, joints swell and hurt, and muscles weaken. In
advanced stages, the disease called scurvy results. This misery
used to attack sailors on long voyages when they got no fresh
food. In time, they found they could fight scurvy with lemon,
lime, or orange juice added to rations. Much later, vitamin
C, the scurvy-fighter itself, was discovered.
Scurvy is rare now in this country. But many people get
too little vitamin C for their best state of health.
You need some food rich in vitamin C daily, because the
body can't store much of this vitamin.
AH of the familiar citrus fruits are bountiful sources of
vitamin G. Half a glass (4 ounces) of orange or grapefruit
juice, fresh or canned, goes far toward meeting a day's needs.
The same is true of half a grapefruit, a whole orange, or a
couple of tangerines.
Other good sources of vitamin C include tomatoes and
tomato juice, canned or fresh; fresh strawberries and canta-
loup; also raw green food, such as cabbage, green pepper,
and green lettuce. The potato's many values include some
vitamin C.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is especially important to the young, because it
works with minerals to form straight, strong bones, and sound
teeth. Babies with bowlegs may have had too little vitamin D.
An individual should get some of this vitamin regularly, at
least through the growing stage. It is also important for preg-
nant and nursing mothers.
"Sunshine vijamin" is vitamin D's nickname, because the
sun's rays striking the skin have power to change certain
substances in the skin into vitamin D.

From baby days on, children can make good use of sunshine.
But they should be protected well against sunburn or sunstroke.
Children can't get much vitamin D from the sun when they
must wear thick warm clothes for cold weather, or when
sunlight is cut off by clouds, smoke, fog, dust, or ordinary
window glass.
A few foods, such as egg yolk, butter, salmon, tuna, and
sardines, help out with vitamin D; and some milk, both fresh
and-evaporated, has vitamin D added. But to supplement
sunshine and food, babies and young children usually need to
take a special vitamin D preparation or one of the fish-liver
oils regularly. These oils from halibut, shark, and cod are
the richest natural sources of this vitamin known.
For the body's energy in work and play, fuel must come
from food. The value of foods for this purpose is figured in
calories. Main sources are starches and sugars, and fats, but
all foods furnish calories—some many, some few, in a given-
size portion.
Your needs for food as fuel depend mainly on two things:
The size of your body and how active you are. An average-
size man who is a desk worker with no strenuous sport or
hobby needs about 2,400 calories from daily food. A fast-
growing, lively teen-ager, boy or girl, may need more calories
than this grown man.
If body weight stays about right for your height and build
it's a sign that fuel intake from food matches your needs.
The calories are taking care of themselves.
But suppose you are overweight . . . what then?
When the body gets more energy food than it can use, it
stores up the excess as fat. Accumulation of too much fat is
sometimes termed the most frequent malnutrition problem
among adults in this country. To put it more plainly, many
adults eat too much.
Up to 35 years of age, if you can't be just right in weight,
it is better to be plump than skinny. Beyond 35, excess fat
becomes a greater health liability than thinness. Ills such
as high blood pressure and heart and kidney ailments are
more common among overweights. Underweights tend to
tire readily and may be an easy prey to infections.

Controlling weight
If you are under 20 years of age, don't try to reduce except
under a physician's guidance. This is also advisable if you
are a young mother, or have anything wrong with heart or
other organs. If you are not in these groups, and need to
reduce, take it slowly. A pound or two off a week is plenty.
To reduce calories without starving your body of its other
Eat three meals a day, but don't be tempted by between-
meal snacks.
Avoid high-calorie foods like the fat on meat, cooking fat,
salad oil, fried foods, gravies and rich sauces, nuts, pastries,
cakes, cookies, rich desserts, candies, jellies, and jams. Eat
small-sized servings of bread or cereal.
Don't skimp on fruits and vegetables. Eat a variety—yes,
potatoes, too. A medium-sized potato has no more calories
than a big orange or a big apple. But take fruits and vege-
tables straight—vegetables without cream sauce or fat, fruit
without sugar and cream. Don't skimp on protein-rich foods,
for you need plenty of lean meat, milk, and eggs.
If you are underweight you need to turn the tables to put
some fat on your bones. You need three balanced meals, as
overweights do. To these meals, you can freely add the extras
shunned by the weight reducers—such as rich gravies and
desserts, salad dressings, and jams. And you can well take
some extra food as between-meal snacks.
869142°—50 2

Finding out what's in foods
Taking foods apart chemically, scientists are learning more exactly, nutrient
by nutrient, what each familiar food can provide for the body's needs.
The table on the following page gives a rough idea of how well different
kinds of foods in this country's diet can provide for the body's various needs.
You can judge from this table that no one food has a wealth of all nutrients—
not even milk, "the most nearly perfect food." Most foods contain more than
one nutrient, and so help in more ways than one.
Up to
•To get all the nutrients needed, it's wise to choose a variety of foods. It is
also important to get enough of the different nutrients from food. A food plan
worked out by nutritionists, such as the one given on pages 14 and 15, is a
handy guide.
•You will be off to a good start nutritionally if you plan meals by some
orderly plan, so that daily food includes needed quantities of protein, minerals,
and other nutrients.
•You are following through effectively when you cook by up-to-date methods
that keep delicate vitamins and minerals from being wasted.
•And, rounding out a family nutrition program, you can make mealtime
interesting and food associations pleasant. For, after all, food must be eaten
to count for good nutrition. You can, for example . . .
•Make a collection of nutritious recipes that the whole family enjoys, and
use them reasonably often.
•When re-using one of these favorites, vary the meal with different food
•If an inexpensive dish seems dull, vary flavor with seasonings, or combine
with other foods different ways.
•Use contrast in food colors, flavors, textures. Some bright-colored food,
something crisp, for example, can heighten the eye appeal and appetite appeal
of a meal.
•Give children small servings, remembering that big amounts may be dis-
couraging. It's better for a child to form the habit of cleaning his plate and
asking for a second helping, if wanted.
•Introduce a new food to a young child in sample tastes, and at the start of a
meal when he is hungry . . . and if he doesn't like it at first, try another day.

Serving by serving ... foods provide for daily needs
Stars on this page give a very rough idea of how servings from groups of
familiar foods contribute toward dietary needs.
A serving that rates 5 stars provides more than 50 percent of the day's need
for a nutrient. A 4-star serving provides about 40 percent; 3-star serving, 30
percent; 2-star serving, 20 percent; 1-star serving, 10 percent. Smaller amounts
of nutrients are not shown. These ratings are based on daily allowances of
nutrients for a moderately active man as recommended by the National
Research Council. Some foods within a group have more of a nutrient, some
less; but in a varied diet, which is common in this country, a group is likely
to average as shown.
Kind of food
Leafy, green, yel-
low vegetables.
Tomatoes, tomato
Other vegetables. . .
Other fruits
Milk, cheese, ice
Meat, poultry, fish . .
Dry beans and peas,
Baked goods, flour,
Butter, fortified mar-
Other fats (includes
bacon, salt pork).
Molasses, sirups,
Size of
Vs cup...
% cup...
1 medium.
1 medium.
/2 cup...
/2 cup...
/2 cup...
c u p
4 ounces.
% c u p
2 slices
2 table-
2 table-
^ 8
* 0
£ J3
-o °
***** More than 50 percent of daily
**** About 40 percent of daily need.
*** About 30 percent of daily need.
** About 20 percent of daily need.

* About 10 percent of daily need.

Have a food plan
To see that your family is well fed, it's wise to use a plan. This way you
can be sure to provide each important kind of food—and enough of it.
A food fact worth knowing is: When families in this country are poorly fed,
the foods they neglect are most often milk and milk products, and vegetables
and fruits—especially the leafy, green, and yellow vegetables and citrus fruits.
Watch for these in planning.
A ready-made food plan
A helpful guide for weekly shopping and meal planning is a food plan worked
out by nutritionists. Such a plan is given on pages 14 and 15. Other plans
could be made that would measure up—as this plan does—to the National
Research Council's yardstick of good nutrition. Any plan that does measure
up must bring into the kitchen the makings of meals that offer recommended
amounts of protein, minerals and vitamins, and food energy.
In the plan given, foods are in groups according to their major contribu-
tions of nutrients, as well as their place in the meal. Amounts to provide for
adequate diets are shown in pounds and quarts of food for a week.
More information about planning by food groups, and the way they work
out in servings, is given on pages 16 to 20. You can see that there is ample
choice within groups to allow for varied meals from day to day wherever you
live. The groups allow, too, for stressing family favorites among the foods.
In the pages on food groups, the "Plan to use" headings are intended as
a guide, if you follow a food plan of your own, not exactly like the one given.
Ways to use this plan
You can make use of the plan on pages 14 and 15 in several ways. It
can serve as a shopping guide, as it stands, to show the approximate amount
of food needed for each member of the family. Or you can compare it to
kinds and quantities of food you regularly use, just to make sure that you are
not short in any important kind.
If you have a garden or put up food for the winter, the food plan can help
as a general guide to amounts of foods that the family will use.

To figure your family's needs
To use the food plan, figure weekly amounts of the food groups that will fit
your family.
The rows of figures in the plan are arranged to show food quantities according
to age, sex, and how active the individual is. Where a range is given: For
children, the first quantity is for the youngest age. For adults, the first quantity
is for the less active. The most active adults do really heavy work or take
strenuous exercise.
For pregnant and nursing women, the first quantity is for pregnant and the
second for nursing women.
No figures are given for children under 1 year because they are often breast-
fed or have formulas or other food prepared especially for them.
Guided by these ranges, you can estimate the quantity needed for each
person in the family. Use judgment in doing this. If a child is having a spurt
of growing, he may need the amount of food usually suggested for children a
year or two older.
As you add up the amount of each kind of food your family members need
in a week, write the figure in the column provided at right of the food plan
sheet. This is your shopping guide, to use as it stands or to compare with
amounts you've been buying.
Your food and your money
Quantities in the food plan can be bought for about the same money that the
average family in this country spends for food. This assumes that you will
choose moderate-price foods, or mix some cheaper foods with more expensive
If you have more money to spend, you can choose now and again the more
expensive items, such as luxury foods and those out of season. On the other
hand, if you want to cut down food costs, reduce somewhat—perhaps by
about one-third—the quantities of meat, poultry, and fish in the plan, and
also the group described as "other vegetables and fruits." To take their place,
increase potatoes and cereals by about one-fourth.
In either case, try not to change very much the quantities given in the plan
for milk and milk products, leafy, green, and yellow vegetables, and tomatoes
and citrus fruits.

A food plan
(Quantities for
Kinds of food
Leafy, green, and yellow
Citrus fruits, tomatoes
Potatoes, sweetpotatoes
Other vegetables and fruits
Milk, cheese, ice cream
(milk equivalent) '
Meat, poultry, fish
Dry beans and peas, nuts
Baked goods, flour, cereals
(flour equivalent) '
Whole-grain, enriched, or restored
Fats, oils
Sugar, sirups, preserves
For children 1
to 6 years
2-21/2 pounds
2-21/2 pounds
1/^-1 pound
2 pounds
6 quarts
1-11/1 pounds
6-7 eggs
1 ounce
/2 pounds
1/1 pound
/2 pound
For children 7
to 1 2 years
21/2-3 pounds
21/2-3 pounds
1%-2 pounds
/2 pounds
7 quarts
2 pounds
7 eggs
2 ounces
2-3 pounds
1/^-1 pound
% pound
For girls 1 3 to
20 years
3% pounds
3 pounds
2% pounds
3% pounds
6-7 quarts
21A~3 pounds
7 eggs
2 ounces
21/2-3 pounds
/4 pound
1 pound
For explanation of milk-equivalent and flour-equivalent foods see pp. 17 and 18.
Larger quantities are for the younger girls.

for good nutrition
one wee
For boys 1 3 to
20 years
3%-4 pounds
3-3% pounds
3%-4% pounds
3% pounds
7 quarts
3 pounds
7 eggs
4-6 ounces
4-5 pounds
1-1% pounds
1-1% pounds
For women
All activities
3%-4 pounds
2%-3 pounds
2-3 pounds
3-4 pounds
5 quarts
2%-3 pounds
6-7 esgs
2-4 ounces
2-4 pounds
%~1 pound
3/j-1 pound
Pregnant and
4 pounds
3%-4% pounds
2-3 pounds
3-3% pounds
71/2-10% quarts
3 pounds
7 eggs
2 ounces
2-2% pounds
% pound
% pound
all activities
3%-4 pounds
21/2-3% pounds
3-5 pounds
3-4 pounds
5 quarts
3-3% pounds
6-7 eggs
4 ounces
3-7 pounds
1-2 pounds
1-1% pounds
Total suggested
(or your family
To meet the iron allowance needed by children 1 to 6 years, girls 13 to 20, and pregnant
and nursing women, include weekly 1 large or 2 small servings of liver or other organ meats.

What's in each food group
Here are common foods grouped as in the plan on pages 14 and 15. Foods
in each group can be used similarly in meals, so within the group there is room
for variety. Foods in each group provide about the same nutrients but some
are better providers than others.
Leafy, green, and yellow vegetables
Leafy, green, and yellow vegetables are rich in vitamin A value, especially
the dark green leafy kinds, and carrots. They also provide worth-while amounts
of riboflavin, iron, and some calcium; and cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts,
and greens offer vitamin C.
Plan to use: 1 or more servings daily.
The food plan provides: 10 to 12 servings per week.
All kinds of greens—collards, kale, turnip greens, spinach, and
many others, cultivated and wild; carrots, peas, snap beans,
okra, green asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, green lima
beans, pumpkin, yellow squash, green cabbage.
Citrus fruits, tomatoes
Citrus fruits and tomatoes are mainstay sources of vitamin C.
Plan to use: 1 or more servings daily.
The food plan provides: 7 to 10 servings a week.
Oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, other citrus fruit, tomatoes.
The following foods are also good sources of vitamin C and
may be used as alternates:
If eaten raw—cabbage, salad greens, green peppers, turnips,
strawberries, pineapple, cantaloup. If cooked briefly, in very
little water—cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, greens.
Potatoes, sweefpotafoes
Potatoes and sweetpotatoes contain a number of nutrients. Because of the
quantities in which they are eaten white potatoes can become quite important
as a source of vitamin G. Sweetpotatoes are valuable for vitamin A in addi-
tion to vitamin C.
Plan to use: 1 or more servings daily.
The food plan provides: 7 to 9 servings a week.

Other vegetables and fruits
These vegetables and fruits help toward a good diet with vitamins and
Plan to use: 1 or more servings daily.
The food plan provides: 10 to 12 servings a week.
Beets, cauliflower, corn, cucumbers, onions, sauerkraut, tur-
nips, white cabbage, apples, peaches, bananas, berries, rhu-
barb, dried fruit—all vegetables and fruits not included in
other groups.
Milk, cheese, ice cream
Milk—whole, skim, evaporated, condensed, dry, buttermilk—is our leading
source of calcium. Milk also provides high-quality protein, riboflavin, vitamin
A, and many other vitamins and minerals.
Plan to use, as the food plan provides, the following amounts of milk daily.
Include milk used for drinking as well as cooking:
Children through teen age: 3% to 4 cups.
Adults: 2% to 3 cups.
Pregnant women: A little more than 1 quart.
Nursing mothers: \\% quarts.
On the basis of calcium they contain, the following may be
used as alternates for 1 cup of milk: Cheddar cheese, 1%
ounces; cream cheese, 15 ounces; cottage cheese, 11 ounces;
ice cream, 2 to 3 large dips.
Meat, poultry, fish
Meat, poultry, and fish are important primarily for high-quality protein.
Foods in this group also provide iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A.
Plan to use: 1 serving daily, if possible.
The food plan provides: 7 to 8 servings a week.
All kinds, including liver, heart, and other variety meats.
Count bacon and salt pork in with fats.
Eggs are a source of high-quality protein, iron, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin
D, and provide some calcium and thiamine.
Plan to use: 4 or more a week.
The food plan provides: 6 or 7 a week.
869142°—50 3 17

Dry beans and peas, nuts
Dry beans and peas and nuts contain good protein, also some calcium, iron,
thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin.
Plan to use: 1 or more servings a week.
The food plan provides: 1 to 2 servings a week.
Dry beans of all kinds, dry peas, lentils; soybeans, soya prod-
ucts; peanuts, other nuts; peanut butter.
Baked goods, flour, cereals
Whole-grain cereals, or those with added vitamins and minerals or restored
to whole-grain value, provide significant amounts of iron, thiamine, riboflavin,
niacin. Foods in this group also help out with protein and calories.
Plan to use as the food plan provides: Some every day.
Flour or meal made from wheat, corn, oats, buckwheat, rye;
cooked and ready-to-eat cereals; rice, barley, hominy, noodles,
macaroni; breads, other baked goods.
Quantities suggested in the food plan are in terms of pounds
of flour and cereal. Bread and other baked goods average
two-thirds flour by weight. Therefore, count 1% pounds of
bread and other baked goods as 1 pound of flour.
Fats, oils
Butter and fortified margarine are rich in vitamin A value. Like all fats
they furnish many calories.
Plan to use as the food plan provides: Some table fat daily: other fats as
needed in cooking.
Butter, margarine, salad oil, shortening, bacon, salt pork,
lard, suet, drippings.
Sugar, sirups, preserves
Sugar, sirups, preserves are useful mainly for the calories they provide for
bodily energy.
The food plan includes for the average person about a pound a week.
Any kind of sugar—granulated (beet or cane), confectioner's,
brown, and maple; molasses or any kind of sirup or honey;
jams and jellies; candy.

Servings and
How much meat to buy for dinner? How many servings will come from a
pound of fresh beans, a No. 2% can, or a frozen package? The food shopper
with an eye to thrift and good management learns to buy carefully just what
she can
The figures below and on the following page can help you decide how much
to buy and, when reading market ads, you can use these figures to help decide
what are real bargains.
The amount of meat, poultry, and fish per serving varies with the amount
of bone and fat. It also varies with the amount of extenders—such as stuffing,
potatoes, rice—used with the meat.
Size of serving for each fruit and vegetable is given for whichever way it is
most commonly served—cooked or uncooked. Size of serving for dry beans
and peas and for cereals and cereal products—except flaked and puffed—is
given for the cooked form.
Meat, poultry, fish
MEAT Amount to buy
per serving
Much bone or gristle. .1/2 to 1 pound
Medium amounts of

/3 to % pound
Little bone
/^ to
/3 pound
No bone
/5 to % pound
dressed weight'
Broiling % to t/% bird
Frying and roasting..% to 1 pound
/3 to % pound
Ducks 1 to 1% pounds
Geese % to 1 pound
Turkeys % to % pound
POULTRY Amount to buy
ready-to-cook per serving
weight '
/4 to Vk bird
Frying, roasting ...% to % pound
Stewing % to % pound
Ducks % to 1 pound
Geese % to % pound
Turkeys About
/2 pound
Whole or round 1 pound
Dressed, large % pound
Steaks, fillets
/4 pound
Number of servings obtained from a
bird depends on the kind, weight, age, sex,
grade, and fatness of the bird and the way

it is prepared.

Vegetables and f r u i t s
Size of per
FRESH serving pound
Cut 1/2 cup
Spears 4-5 stalks 4
Beans, lima 1/2 cup
Beans,snap 1/2 cup 6
Beets, diced 1/2 cup 4
Broccoli 2 stalks 3-4
Brussels sprouts 1/2 cup 5-6
Raw, shredded.. .1/2 cup 7-8
Cooked 1/2 cup 4-5
Raw, shredded. • .1/2 cup 8
Cooked 1/2 cup 5
/2 cup 3
Celery, cooked 1/2 cup 3-4
Collards 1/2 cup 2
Corn, cut 1/2 cup
Eggplant 1/2 cup 4
Onions, cooked 1/2 cup 4
Parsnips 1/2 cup 4
Peas 1/2 cup
Potatoes 1/2 cup 4-5
Spinach 1/2 cup 3-4
Squash 1/2 cup 2-3
Sweetpotatoes 1/2 cup 3-4
Turnips 1/2 cup 4
Size of per
FRESH serving pound
Apricots ........ 2 medium 5-6
Berries, raw ........ % cup 4-5
Cherries, pitted,
cooked .........
/2 cup 2
Plums ............ 2 large 4
Rhubarb, cooked. . .
/2 cup 4
For apples, bananas, oranges, and
pears, count on about 3 to a pound;
peaches, 4 to a pound.
Dry beans
Dry peas, lentils. •
8-ounce can .......
/2 cup
/2 cup
/2 can
/2 cup
No. 3 cylinder
oz.) .........
1/2 cup
packages ........ 1/^j cup
Juices, concentrated,
6 fluid ounces. • • -Vs cup
Per can
Cereals and c e r e a l products
Size of per
serving pound
Flaked corn cereals-.1 cup 18-24
Other flaked cereals. % cup 21
Puffed cereals 1 cup 32-38
Corn meal %. cup 16
Wheat cereals:
Coarse % cup 12
Fine % cup 16-22
Size of per
serving pound
Oatmeal %. cup 13
Hominy grits 1/2 cup 20
Macaroni and
noodles % cup 12
/2 cup 16
Spaghetti % cup 13
As purchased.
In pod.
In husk.

Smart buying
It is not easy for household buyers to judge quality of meat.
Best guides for selecting the meat you want are the U. S. Department of
Agriculture grades—which more retail stores will use as consumers request
graded meat. The grades you are most likely to find on the market are Choice,
Good, and Commercial.
The Federal grade name appears in purple on most of the retail cuts of meat.
Another purple stamp which may appear on retail cuts is the round one
indicating that the meat has been inspected and passed as wholesome food.
All graded meat is inspected, but not all inspected meat is graded.
Meat packers, wholesalers, or retailers may use their own brand names, not
to be confused with USDA grades. Letters such as AA and A are never used
as meat grades by the USDA.
You may find on your market Federally graded beef, lamb, mutton, veal, and
calf. Pork is not usually graded. But beef is the meat you will most often find
with a USDA grade stamp.
Beef grades
U. S. Choice.—Excellent quality and flavor, tender and juicy, good distribu-
tion of fat through the lean meat.
U. S. Good.—Very acceptable qual-
ity and flavor. This grade is popular
because it combines a moderate
amount of fat with desirable eating
quality. If you find graded beef at
your butcher's, it is most likely to be
U. S. Good.
U. S. Commercial.—Varies in fatness
and tenderness. Some Commercial
meat comes from young animals and
may therefore be moderately tender.

But it has less fat in proportion to lean meat than the higher grades. Com-
mercial beef with a fairly thick covering of fat comes from older animals and may
be less tender. Such Commercial grade meat is often a good buy, but usually
requires long, slow cooking.
If you buy ungraded beef
You can be reasonably sure of high-quality beef when the lean meat is light
red, velvety-appearing, and liberally veined with fat, when bones are red, and
the fat is flaky and white.
Meat and your money
The amount of bone and fat must be considered in figuring the cost of meat—
beef, pork, lamb, or veal. For example, beef short ribs may cost less per pound
than hamburger but will yield only one-third to one-half as many servings.
In buying beef when you plan to have broiled steaks or rare roasts, select
Choice or Good grades. But when you want pot roasts, you may do just as
well to buy Commercial grade.
For hamburger, meat loaf, and stews, Commercial beef may be just as satis-
factory as Choice or Good and is often more economical.
Poultry is marketed live, dressed, and ready-to-cook.
Dressed poultry has been bled and picked, but internal organs, head, and
feet have not been removed.
Ready-to-cook (eviscerated) birds have been bled and picked, and internal
organs, head, feet, and oil sac have been removed. Pinfeathers have been
pulled, the bird has been thoroughly cleaned inside and out, and the cleaned
giblets and neck are usually packed inside.
Some dressed poultry is graded for quality. Some ready-to-cook poultry is
graded for quality, inspected for wholesomeness, or both. Federally inspected
and graded birds are marked "U. S."
For top quality in poultry, look for a plump bird with well-fleshed breast and
legs, well-distributed fat, and skin that has few blemishes and pinfeathers. Too
much fat is wasteful unless used in other dishes such as sauces, gravies, and
Considering economy.—It may not be an economy to buy live or dressed birds.
In the same market dressed birds cost more per pound than live ones, and

ready-to-cook birds more per pound than dressed. But the dollar spent on
live or dressed birds pays for more waste.
The larger, well-fleshed birds are often better buys than smaller ones. They
usually have more meat in proportion to bone.
Chickens and turkeys
For broiling, frying, or roasting, choose a plump young chicken. Smaller sizes
are best for broiling. Young birds have smooth, tender skin, soft tender meat,
and a flexible breastbone. For stewing or braising, choose an older bird with
coarser skin and a firm breastbone.
Most turkeys are marketed when young and tender-rneated—suitable for
roasting. Small, very young turkeys that can be broiled or fried as well as
roasted are on some markets now. Turkeys range from 2% to 25 pounds,
ready-to-cook. Halves or quarter roasts suit needs of smaller families.
Ducks and geese
Ducks have less range in size than turkeys. Ducks may weigh from 3% to
5% pounds, ready-to-cook. Most of them are marketed young, as ducklings.
The heavier the duck, the fatter it usually is.
Geese come larger than ducks and are usually fatter. Geese as most com-
monly marketed run 8 to 10 pounds, ready-to-cook.
Fish may be purchased fresh, frozen, or canned.
Fresh fish are often a good buy. It is well to know the varieties available on
your market and the seasons of the year when each is most plentiful.
Most important point in buying whole fish is to be sure of freshness. Look
for these signs:
Eyes—bright, clear, and bulging.
Gills—reddish-pink, free from slime.
Scales—tight to the skin, bright, and shiny.
Flesh—firm and elastic, springing back when pressed, and not separating
from the bones.

It also pays to know the most common ways fish are marketed:
Whole or round.—Marketed just as they come from the water. Before cooking,
internal organs must be taken out and scales removed. Remove the head, tail,

and fins except on some small fish or fish to be baked. For broiling or frying,
the fish may need to be split or cut into serving-size portions.
Drawn.—Internal organs already removed. Prepare for cooking just as whole
or round fish.
Dressed or pan dressed.—Both internal organs and scales removed. Most dressed
fish also have head, tail, and fins removed.
Steaks.—Cross-section slices of the larger dressed fish. Steaks are ready to
cook as purchased. A cross section of the backbone is usually the only bone in
a fish steak.
Fillets.—Meaty sides of the fish, cut lengthwise away from the backbone.
Fillets are practically boneless and require no preparation for cooking. Some-
times the skin, with scales removed, is left on one side of the fillet; other fillets
are completely skinned.
Whole fish may be cheaper than fillets or steaks, but remember that whole
fish include considerable waste. Steaks have little bone or waste and fillets
have none at all.
To be sure of high-quality eggs, buy graded eggs sold in cartons and kept in a
refrigerator. Look for the grade, size, and the date of grading on the label.
Size.—Eggs are classified by size according to weight per dozen. The four
sizes most commonly found on the market are: Extra large—at least 27 ounces
per dozen; large—at least 24 ounces; medium—at least 21 ounces; and small—
at least 18 ounces per dozen.
In the fall, medium and small eggs may come at a better price for their size
than larger ones. For some uses, you need to buy more small eggs than
you would normally buy of the larger. For instance, you need more small eggs
than large ones for a cup of egg whites in an angel cake.
Quality.—Eggs are also classified by grade according to quality.
Grades AA and A—top quality, good for all uses, but most appreciated when
poached, fried, or cooked in the shell.
Grades B and C—good eggs for dishes in which appearance and delicate
flavor are not so important. Use them in baked dishes, custards, sauces, and
salad dressings.
Grade B eggs are often a good buy for they may cost considerably less per
dozen than Grade A eggs of the same size.
Buy either white or brown eggs. Color of the shell has nothing to do with
flavor or nutritive value of the egg.

Fresh vegetables and fruits
It's a good rule to choose the fresh and avoid the shriveled, wilted, or decayed.
But consider that blemishes such as blotches on apples and yellowed outer leaves
of cabbage can be removed in preparing.
Experience is the best teacher in choosing quality but here are a few pointers
on buying some of the fruits and vegetables.
Apples.—Good color usually indicates full flavor. Learn the varieties you
like best for cooking and eating out of hand by buying small samples, especially
if you plan to buy a large quantity later.
Remember that the same variety of apple may be tart when on the market
in the fall but mellow when sold in the winter.
Asparagus.—Stalks should be tender and firm, tips should be close and com-
pact. Choose the stalks with very little white—they are more tender. Use
asparagus soon—it toughens rapidly.
Beans, snap.—Those with small seeds inside the pods are best. Avoid beans
with dry-looking pods.
Berries.—Select plump, solid berries with good color. Avoid stained con-
tainers, indicating wet or leaky berries. Berries such as blackberries and rasp-
berries with clinging caps may be underripe. Strawberries without caps may
be too ripe.
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower.—Flower clusters on broccoli and cauli-
flower should be tight and close together. Brussels sprouts should be firm and
compact. Smudgy, dirty spots may indicate insects.
Cabbage and head lettuce.—Choose heads heavy for size. Avoid cabbage with
worm holes, lettuce with discoloration or soft rot.
Cucumbers.—Choose long, slender cucumbers for best quality. May be dark
or medium green but yellowed ones are undesirable.
Melons.—In cantaloups, thick close netting on the rind indicates best quality.
Cantaloups are ripe when the stem scar is smooth and space between the
netting is yellow or yellow-green. They are best to eat when fully ripe with
fruity odor.
Honeydews are ripe when rind has creamy to yellowish color and velvety
texture. Immature honeydews are whitish-green.
Ripe watermelons have some yellow color on one side. If melons are white
or pale green on one side, they are not ripe.
Onions (dry).—Size and color do not affect flavor or quality. Avoid onions
with wet necks. The Bermuda and Spanish types are milder than the very
hard, long-keeping varieties.
869142°—50 4

Oranges, grapefruit, and lemons.—Choose those heavy for their size. Smoother,
thinner skins usually indicate more juice. Most skin markings do not affect
quality. Oranges with a slight greenish tinge may be just as ripe as fully
colored ones. Light or greenish-yellow lemons are more tart than deep yellow
ones. Avoid citrus fruits showing withered, sunken, or soft areas.
Peaches.—Best to buy when firm, not bruised, and showing no green color.
Peas and lima beans.—Select pods that are well-filled but not bulging. Avoid
dried, spotted, yellowed, or flabby pods.
Pears.—Some pears, especially winter varieties, are marketed when slightly
underripe and need to be ripened at home—at room temperature. Pears are
ripe and ready to eat when they are slightly soft at stem end.
Potatoes.—If you plan to buy a large quantity of potatoes, buy a few first to
see if they are the kind you want. Early crop potatoes, marketed in the sum-
mer, tend to be less mealy when cooked than those harvested later. Avoid
potatoes with wasteful deep eyes. Potatoes with green skins may be bitter.
Root vegetables.—Should be smooth and firm. Very large carrots may have
woody cores, oversized radishes may be pithy, oversized turnips, beets, and
parsnips may be woody. Fresh carrot tops usually mean fresh carrots, but
condition of leaves on most other root vegetables does not indicate degree of
Sweetpotatoes.—Porto Rico and Nancy Hall varieties—with bronze to rosy
skins—are soft and sweet when cooked. Yellow to light-brown ones of the
Jersey types are firmer and less moist.
Canned and frozen foods
Canned.—You may want to choose the highest quality for plain-cooked dishes,
salads, or serving "as is." But second quality may do for combination dishes
such as stews, casserole dishes, soups, and fruit puddings, where wholeness or
color is not so important.
Frozen.—Buy only packages that are frozen solid. Avoid packages that feel
soft, indicating they have started to thaw. Refreezing after thawing lowers

Wise storing
t, poultry, fish.
— Important to keep cold; so store in refrigerator —
to 40° F.
Poultry, fish, and unsmoked meat — such as roasts, chops, and steaks —
must be allowed some air. Loosen any tight transparent coverings. Cover
again loosely — use within a few days.
Ground fresh meat and variety meats, especially liver and brains, spoil more
quickly than others. Store loosely wrapped; cook within 2 days for best flavor.
Smoked meats — such as ham, frankfurters, and bacon — and sausage, smoked
or unsmoked, may be kept tight-wrapped during storage. They keep longer
than unsmoked meats, although bacon and sausage are likely to change flavor.
Keep cooked meat, poultry, and fish and also broth and gravies covered and
in the refrigerator. Use within a few days.
Keep in covered container in the refrigerator. Storing eggs with
large end up keeps the yolk centered.
Fresh vegetables and fruits.
— For best eating, most fruits and vegetables
should be used fresh from garden or orchard. But if they must be held a few
days, follow this storage guide:
Refrigerated and covered
Beans, snap or wax
Corn, husked
Refrigerated, covered or uncovered
Apples (mellow) Cherries
Apricots Corn, in husks
Avocados Grapes
Berries Nectarines
Room temperature or refrigerated
Lemons, limes
Onions, green
Peas, shelled
Peppers, green
Peaches (soft ripe)
Peas, in shell
Squash, summer

Room temperature or slightly cooler (60° to 70° F.)
Apples (hard) Peaches (firm) Squash, winter
Bananas Potatoes Sweetpotatoes
Onions, dry Rutabagas Turnips
Corn stays fresh longer if not husked. Carrots and beets wilt less with tops
removed. These two and parsnips keep still better if covered and refrigerated.
To keep berries in best condition, store them unwashed and spread out. Watch
berries for molding.
Ripening.—Tomatoes and some slightly underripe fruits will ripen during
storage if they are fresh and sound. Ripen peaches, pears, plums, avocados,
and tomatoes in open air at room temperature; cantaloups will soften at room
temperature but will not improve in flavor.
To ripen bananas, keep at room temperature. To prevent shriveling, keep
them in a paper bag along with wet cloth or paper.
—Refrigerate lard, butter, margarine, drippings and rendered fats,
and opened containers of salad oils. Hydrogenated fats (certain shortenings
sold under brand names) can be kept at room temperature.
Canned foods.
—Keep in dry place at room temperature, preferably not
above 70° F. Opened jars of salad dressing should be kept in the refrigerator
for finest flavor. Keep salad dressings from freezing to retain smooth texture.
Frozen foods.
—Keep frozen hard until time to use. Refreezing after thaw-
ing lowers quality.
Dried foods.
—Keep dried fruits in tightly covered jar or can at room tem-
perature, preferably not above 70° F. In warm humid weather, move to the
Keep dried eggs in unopened packages in cool place, 50° to 55° F., or prefer-
ably in the refrigerator. After opening, keep in tightly covered can or jar in
Keep dry milk in unopened packages at room temperature, preferably not above
75° F. After opening, keep in tightly covered can or jar in refrigerator.

Main dishes
The dish that gets star billing at your table—whether it's sizzling steak or
tangy cheese casserole—is called the main dish.
Meat, poultry, and fish most often play the main-dish role for theirs is the sat-
isfying flavor and stick-to-the-ribs quality we like when we're hungry. And
they are foods that abound in high-quality protein.
Another hearty trio—milk, cheese, and eggs—are main-dish favorites. They
have a special talent for combining well with other foods and provide the
same good protein that's in meat, poultry, and fish. Potatoes, rice, beans, and
other vegetables and cereals are also sturdy "combiners" for main dishes.
Combination main dishes
Some of the main dishes we like best are combinations. Dear to our hearts
are rich brown beef stews with potatoes or dumplings, chicken with flaky rice,
macaroni and cheese. Many combinations are thrifty dishes, too.
If the main dish is light and not high in protein, other protein-rich foods may
be part of the menu. Here's where that milk-cheese-egg threesome comes in
handy. Milk to drink, vegetables with cheese, custard for dessert—served in
such ways they help round out the meal's protein.
There's nothing else like it—the prized savoriness of meat. But all the skill
of good cooking must be brought to bear on retaining this good flavor.
Beef may be cooked rare, medium, or well-done. Lamb is enjoyed either
medium or well-done, but veal and pork are cooked well-done. Moderate
heat is best for all meat cooking—-foi top of stove, oven, or broiler.
Frozen meats may be thawed before cooking or cooked without thawing first.
To cook chops and steaks without thawing, allow 2 to 15 minutes longer than
usual, depending on thickness. For roasts, allow 10 minutes per pound extra
for lamb, 20 minutes for pork, and 25 minutes for beef.
Meat grading and other buying pointers will be found on page 21 and meat
storage on page 27. How much meat to buy per serving is given on page 19.

The first three cooking methods suggested in the guide below are for top-grade
meat. Fat beef graded Commercial is more satisfactorily cooked by pot-
roasting, braising, or simmering.
Thick steaks:
Thin steaks:
Rib, standing
or rolled
Heel of round
Short ribs
Round steak
Flank steak
Heel of round
Short ribs
Corned beef
Large loin
and rump
Loin and rib
Smoked ham
Smoked ham
Thin steaks
Thin chops
Fresh and
Fresh and
Ham slices
Thick chops
Thick steaks
Smoked ham
Neck slices
Neck slices

Roasts . . . beef, veal, lamb, pork
Place roast, fat side up, on a rack in a shallow pan. Do not add water; do
not cover. Season either before or after cooking.
Below is a guide to cooking time. The minutes per pound are only approxi-
mate. Quality of meat, size and shape of roast, and its temperature at the
start all affect the time required. If you use a meat thermometer, insert it so
the bulb is at center of thickest part of meat and does not touch bone or fat.
Cook meat to the temperature given in last column of table.
TIMES AND TEMPERATURE for roasting meats
Oven temperature—325° F.
Well done
Pork, Fresh:
Pork, smoked (not precooked):
6 to 8
5 to 8
6 to 7
4 to 6
4 to 5
1 2 to 1 5
4 to 6
10 to 14
1 5 and over*
5 to 8
5 to 8
Cooking time *
Minutes per pound
20 to 22
27 to 30
1 5
u t es
30 to 35
25 to 30
25 to 30
30 to 35
1 0 min-
u t e s p e r
35 to 40
15 to 20
35 to 40
u t e s p e r
30 to 35
15 to 20
18 to 20
28 to 35
of meat when
1 70 to 1 80
1 70 to 1 80
1 75 to 1 80
f precooked
Where range of times is given use lower figure for larger roast.

Broiled steak
Choose a steak 1 to 2 inches thick,
of high-quality beef. Steaks recom-
mended for broiling are listed on
page 30.
Slash the fat at the edges of the
meat to prevent curling.
Preheat broiler. Grease broiler
rack lightly.
Place steak on rack so that top of
meat is 2 to 3 inches below source of
heat—3 inches if the steak is to be
cooked well done. It is generally
best to leave oven door open.
Broil the steak until top side is well
browned, season, then turn and
brown the other side. (Stick fork
into fat, not lean, when turning.)
Broiling time for steaks—The table
below is a guide to broiling time.
Only approximate times can be
given, because much depends on the
broiler, personal preference in done-
ness of meat, and the meat itself.
STEAK Total time
1 inch thick:
Rare About 10
Medium About 15
Well done 20 to 25
1 Vs inches thick:
Rare About 15
Medium About 20
Well done .....25 to 30
2 inches thick:
Rare About 25
Medium About 35
Well done 45 to 50
Pot roast of beef
Select 4 to 5 pounds of beef—
chuck, rump, or round.
Rub the meat with salt, pepper,
and flour, and brown on all sides in
a little hot fat in a deep heavy pan
with cover.
Slip a low rack under meat to
keep it from sticking to pan. Add
one-half cup water; cover pan closely.
Cook slowly over low heat until
done—about 3 hours. Add more
water as needed.
During the last half hour, cook
vegetables with meat—quartered po-
tatoes, onions, and whole carrots.
Make gravy with the liquid (p. 71).
Menu suggestion
Serve with the vegetables, lettuce
wedges, and peach or other fruit
Braised steak and onions
% to 1 pound beef rump
round, cut 1 inch thick
Salt, pepper, flour
1 or 2 large onions, sliced
Season meat with salt and pepper,
and sprinkle with flour.
Pound on both sides with the back
edge of a large knife or the edge of a
heavy saucer to help make meat
Cut meat into serving pieces and
brown in a little fat in a fry pan.

Add water to %-mch depth, cover
pan, and cook slowly about 2 hours
or until meat is very tender, adding
the onions during the last half hour.
To serve, place the steak on a hot
platter and cover with the onions.
Make gravy with the drippings (p.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with baked potatoes, green
salad, and stewed prunes or other
fruit and cookies.
Stuffed flank steak
Stuffing made with 2 cups
crumbs (p. 41)
1 flank steak (about 1
/2 pounds)
2 tablespoons fat
Spread stuffing over steak.
Beginning at one side, roll the
meat like a jelly roll. Tie securely in
several places with clean string.
Brown the meat on all sides in the
fat in a heavy pan on top of the
Slip a rack under the meat. Cover
the pan closely.
Cook in oven at 350° F. (moderate)
about 1% hours.
Start carving at the end of the roll
and cut across the grain, so that each
serving is a round slice witii stuffing
in the center.
Make gravy with the drippings
6 to 8 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with mashed rutabagas, and
apple, celery, and nut salad. For
dessert have lemon sponge pudding
or butterscotch pudding.
Ragout of beef
1 pound stewing beef, cut in
Salt, pepper, flour
2 to 3 tablespoons fat
1 small onion, chopped
P chopped green pepper
%. cup chopped celery
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
Hot water
Sprinkle beef with salt, pepper, and
flour. Brown well in the fat in a
heavy pan. While meat is browning,
add the chopped vegetables.
Sprinkle with paprika, add hot
water to cover. Cover pan.
Cook slowly 2% to 3 hours.
If gravy is not thick enough, blend
1 to 2 tablespoons flour with a little
cold water and stir into the stew.
Cook 3 to 5 minutes.
Season to taste with salt and
pepper. If additional seasoning is
desired, add catsup, chili sauce, or
grated horseradish.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with brussels sprouts, to-
mato and cucumber salad, and
blueberry pie.
869142°—50 5

Braised shorf ribs
2 to 3 pounds beef short ribs
Salt, pepper, flour
1 cup water
Cut meat in serving pieces and
sprinkle with salt, pepper, and flour.
Brown well on all sides in a little
hot fat. Add water and cover
Cook in oven at 350° F. (moderate)
about 2 hours. Or cook slowly on
top of stove.
Make gravy with the drippings (p.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with noodles, panned cab-
bage, carrot and raisin salad, and
chocolate souffle.
Panned corned beef
and cabbage

4 tablespoons fat
1 quart shredded cabbage
2 cups chopped cooked corned
Salt, pepper, vinegar
Melt fat in a fry pan. Add the
cabbage and corned beef. Cover
Cook until cabbage is tender—5 to
10 minutes—stirring occasionally to
prevent sticking.
Season to taste with salt, pepper,
and vinegar.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with corn and a salad of
cucumber slices and green pepper
rings in sour cream dressing. Have
chocolate cream pie for dessert.
For variety
Panned ham and cabbage.—Use 2 cups
chopped cooked ham instead of
corned beef.
Meat loaf
2 pounds ground beef or veal
/2 pound sausage or salt pork
/2 cup chopped onion
t/4 cup chopped celery
% cup chopped parsley
1 cup soft bread crumbs
1 cup milk or canned or cooked
1 egg, beaten
1 teaspoon salt
Mix all ingredients together thor-
oughly. If salt pork is used, cut it
in small pieces and fry until lightly
browned before adding to the other
Pack mixture into a loaf pan.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) 1%
to 2 hours. Serve hot or cold.
8 to 10 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with scalloped potatoes, to-
mato jelly salad, and have apricot
pudding for dessert.

Braised veal shoulder
3 to 5 pounds boned and rolled
veal shoulder
Salt, pepper, (lour
Rub meat with salt, pepper, and
flour. Brown on all sides in a little
Place meat on a rack in a deep pan.
Cover pan.
Cook in oven at 350° F. (moderate)
about 2K hours.
Make gravy with drippings (p. 71).
Menu suggestion
Serve with mashed potatoes and
gravy, peas, jellied fruit salad, and
ice cream for dessert.
Pan-broiled lamb chops
Loiri, rib, or shoulder chops may
be used.
Heat a heavy fry pan very hot and
grease lightly. Lay chops in pan
and brown quickly on both sides.
Turn thick chops on edge to brown
the fat. Reduce heat and cook
slowly, turning often. Do not add
water and do not cover. From time
to time pour off excess fat.
Chops % to 1 inch thick take 10
to 15 minutes to cook.
Menu suggestion
Serve with creamed potatoes, beets,
tossed green salad, and have cupcakes
for dessert.
Braised chops
Sprinkle chops (veal, lamb, or
pork) with salt, pepper, and flour.
Brown in a little fat in a fry pan.
Cover and cook over low heat }i to
% hour.
Make gravy with the drippings (p.
71), or pour the drippings over the
chops on the platter.
Menu suggestion
Serve with mashed potatoes or
sweetpotatoes, Spanish snap beans,
and fruit upside-down cake.
Irish stew
%. to 1 pound lean lamb, cut in
Salt, pepper, (lour
1 onion, sliced
2 to 4 tablespoons fat
2 potatoes, diced
4 small carrots, diced
1 turnip, diced
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
Sprinkle the meat with salt, pepper,
and flour; brown it with the onion
in the
Add water to cover. Cover pan
and cook slowly until meat is almost
done—about 1}^ hours.
Add potatoes, carrots, and turnip
and cook until tender—20 to 30
minutes. Add parsley.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with fruit salad, and have
rice pudding for dessert.

Curried meat
1 cup chopped celery and tops
1 small onion, chopped
3 tablespoons (at
2 cups chopped cooked lamb,
pork, or veal
/4 cup brown gravy or broth
VfJ to
/2 teaspoon curry powder
Salt to taste
Brown celery and onion in fat.
Add meat, gravy or broth, and
seasonings. Heat, stirring to keep
from sticking. If dry, add a little
boiling water.
4 servings.
Chop suey.—Omit curry powder and
add chopped almonds or sliced rad-
ishes if desired. Serve on crisp fried
Menu suggestion
Serve with rice, spinach, crisp
vegetable salad, and fruit cobbler.
Meat and vegetable pie
2/3 cup cubed carrots
% cup cubed potatoes
1 small onion, sliced
Meat gravy
1 cup cubed cooked meat
/2 recipe rich biscuit dough (p.
Cook the vegetables in boiling
salted water until almost tender.
Add some of the cooking liquid to
the gravy if needed to make about
\\}'i cups.
Mix vegetables, meat, and gravy
together. Heat thoroughly and pour
into a baking pan.
Cut biscuits and arrange on top of
meat mixture.
Bake at 425° F. (hot oven) until
biscuits are done and pie is hot—
about 15 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with grapefruit salad and
custard-filled cream puffs.
Ham with noodles
/2 cups cooked noodles
2 cups ground cooked ham
2 cups thin white sauce (p. 70)
Crumbs mixed with melted (at
Place half the noodles in a greased
baking dish or pan and top with
half the ham. Add another layer of
noodles and ham.
Pour white sauce over mixture.
Top with crumbs.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
20 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with asparagus or snap
beans, a tossed green salad, and
berry pie.
For variety
Chicken with noodles.—Use 2 cups
diced cooked chicken instead of ham.
In place of white sauce, make gravy
with chicken broth.

Ham with sweetpofatoes
%- to 1-pound slice of ham
2 medium sweetpotatoes, pared
2 tablespoons brown sugar
1 cup hot water
Cut ham in serving pieces and
brown lightly in a fry pan.
Place the ham in a baking dish.
Slice the sweetpotatoes over it, and
sprinkle with sugar.
Add water to drippings, pour over
sweetpotatoes. Cover.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
about 45 minutes, basting occasion-
ally with the liquid. Remove cover
for the last 15 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with broccoli, crisp celery,
and a fruit chiffon pie.
Ham fimbale
2 cups ground cooked ham
1 cup medium white sauce
(p. 70)
2 eggs, beaten
Mix all ingredients and pour into
shallow greased baking dish. Place
dish in pan of hot water.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
about 50 minutes, or until mixture is
firm in center.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with baked squash, coleslaw,
and cooked dried fruit.
Ham croquettes
2 cups ground cooked ham
1 cup mashed potatoes
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
Salt and pepper
1 tablespoon water
1 egg, beaten
Fine dry crumbs
Fat (or frying
Combine ham, potatoes, onion,
and parsley. Add salt and pepper.
Shape into eight croquettes.
Add water to egg. Dip croquettes
into egg and roll in crumbs.
Brown the croquettes in a fry pan,
or french-fry or bake them.
Pan-fried.—Brown croquettes in a
little hot fat, turning to form a good
crust all over.
French-fried.—Half fill a deep
kettle with oil or melted fat. Heat to
375° F. (hot enough to brown a
1-inch cube of bread in 40 seconds).
Place croquettes in a wire frying
basket and cook in the hot fat until
browned—3 to 5 minutes.
Baked.—Shape mixture into flat
cakes and dip in egg and roll in
crumbs as above. Place in greased
pan and bake at 400° F. (hot oven)
until browned on the bottom. Turn
and brown other side.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with glazed sweetpotatoes,
asparagus, pineapple and banana
salad, and gingerbread.

Beef tongue
Fresh.—Wash a fresh beef tongue
and place in hot water to cover.
Add an onion, a sprig of parsley, a
bay leaf, several peppercorns or
cloves, and salt.
Cook slowly until tongue is ten-
der—2% to 3 hours.
Skin tongue, slice, serve hot; or,
cool skinned tongue in the liquid
and serve cold.
Smoked.—Soak tongue overnight in
cold water. Drain; cover with fresh
cold water. Bring to boiling point
and discard water. Cover with hot
water, cook slowly 2% to 3 hours.
Menu suggestion
Serve with hash-browned potatoes,
beets in honey sauce, cabbage salad,
and apple pie.
Fried liver and bacon
Vs pound liver, sliced (beef, calf,
lamb, or pork)
Salt, pepper, (lour
8 slices bacon
Remove heavy blood vessels from
liver. If you use lamb or pork
liver, pour boiling water over it and
Cook bacon over low heat, turning
often, until brown and crisp. Drain
on paper; keep hot.
Sprinkle liver with salt, pepper,
and flour.
Cook in the bacon fat at moderate
heat until lightly browned on one
side. Turn and brown on the other
side. Do not add water and do not
cover. Slices }{ inch thick take about
5 minutes. Take care not to over-
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with creamed p o t a t o e s ,
panned kale, relishes, and cherry
Braised stuffed calf's heart
2 calves' hearts (%-pound each)
Stuffing made with 2 or 3 cups
crumbs (p. 41)
/2 cup water
Wash the hearts and make a slit to
the center cavities. Remove gristle
and blood vessels.
Fill hearts with stuffing and sew up
Brown hearts on all sides in a little
fat. Place in a baking dish or pan,
add water, and cover closely.
Cook in oven at 300° F. (slow)
until tender—about 1% hours.
Make gravy with the liquid (p. 71).
4 servings.
Braised stuffed beef heart.—Prepare as
above, but cook about 4 hours.
8 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with glazed carrots, lettuce
wedges, and apple crisp.

Feast day or any day, chicken, turkey, duck, and goose are favorites.
Choose from many cherished dishes—golden roast turkey, chicken fried to a
crispy turn, stewed chicken with dumplings—or be very modern with the new
turkey steaks.
How to cook any kind of poultry depends on the bird's age, weight, quality,
and fatness. In general, plump young birds are best for broiling, frying, or
roasting. Older birds or lean young ones are best braised, stewed, or steamed.
Buying pointers for poultry will be found on page 22. How much poultry
to buy per serving is given on page 19.
Cooking rules
Whether poultry is freshly drawn or frozen, two good rules are: (1) Cook
at low to moderate temperatures; and (2) don't overcook.
In frying or roasting, birds should not be covered. The meat is more juicy
and there is less shrinkage.
Keep frozen birds frozen until time to thaw for cooking. To cook without
thawing first, allow one-and-a-half times as long as usual.
Preparing the bird
Ready-to-cook birds should need no preparation before cooking. But you may
have to remove a few pinfeathers. Wash and dry bird.
Dressed birds have been bled and picked but the head and feet and internal
organs have not been removed. To prepare, start by removing pinfeathers.
Singe off hairs, cut off head and feet, and cut out the oil sac on top of tail.
Then scrub the bird.
Cut circle around vent below tail, leaving it free to be removed with internal
organs. Make a crosswise slit large enough for drawing, between this circle
and rear end of breastbone. Leave a band of skin between the two cuts.
Draw out internal organs. Save heart, liver, and gizzard. Slit skin length-
wise at back of neck, leaving skin on bird. Slip skin down and remove crop
and windpipe. Cut neck off short and save. Wash inside of bird and dry.
To clean giblets, cut blood vessels from heart, and carefully cut away green
gall sac from liver. Be careful not to break the gall sac. Gall is bitter and
will spoil the flavor of any meat it touches. Cut through one side of gizzard
to inner lining, remove lining, and discard.' Wash giblets.

After cleaning bird (p. 39), sprinkle
inside with salt. Stuff body and
neck cavities loosely. If opening is
large, hold stuffing in at tail by
slipping in the heel of a loaf of bread.
Tie legs and tail together. For
ducks and geese, sew together the
cut edges of skin and tie legs close to
Fold loose neck skin toward back,
sew or fasten with poultry pins.
Fold wing tips back of heavy wing
Brush skin of chicken or turkey with
soft fat. Ducks and geese do not need
added fat.
Place bird on rack in shallow pan
and roast uncovered without adding
water (see Roasting Guide below).
If desired, start bird breast down and
turn two or three times during cook-
ing. Cooking may be a little more
even this way.
Baste a chicken or turkey several
times with melted fat or drippings.
Since ducks and geese are fat, they
do not need basting. In fact, when
roasting a goose, prick the skin from
time to time to let fat run out.
Always roast a goose breast up.
Bird is done when flesh is slightly
shrunken beneath skin, thick por-
tions of breast and thigh prick tender,
and juice running out has no pink
color. Joints can be moved easily.
While bird roasts, simmer the gib-
lets and neck until tender. Use
enough salted water to cover. Cool
and chop fine to add to gravy (p. 71),
or save to use in creamed dish with
left-over meat from the roast bird.
Chicken . .
Duck . . .
Goose . . .
Turkey . .
Dressed weight
to 4
to 6
to 7
to 10
to 14
to 18
to 24
to 30
cook weight
3 to
to 51/2
to 10
to 81/2
to 12
1 21/2
to 1 51/2
16 to 21
to 26
% t o 1
to 2
to 2
to 3
to 2
to 3
to 4
to 51/2
to 7
to 2
to 3
to 3
to 41/2
to 3
to 31/2
to 41/2
to 6
to 71/2

Bread stuffing is popular for roast
poultry. For making it, bread that is
at least a day old is better than fresh.
The recipe for bread stuffing given
below is based on 1 quart of %-inch
crumbs cut or torn from the loaf or
from sliced bread. For the number
of quarts to use for a bird the size
you are cooking, see the Roasting
Guide on page 40. Then multiply
each ingredient in the recipe by this
1 quart bread crumbs
cup fat
% cup chopped celery
3 tablespoons chopped parsley
2 tablespoons chopped onion
/2 teaspoon savory seasoning
/2 to
/4 teaspoon salt
Pepper to taste
Melt fat in fry pan, add celery,
parsley, and onion, and cook a few
Add to crumbs with the seasonings.
Mix lightly but well.
For variety
Oyster stuffing.—Omit celery and re-
duce parsley and onion to 1 table-
spoon each. Add }£ pint oysters,
heated in their own liquid and
Nut stuffing.—Omit parsley and
savory seasoning and add % cup
chopped nut meats—pecans, roasted
almonds, filberts, or cooked chest-
Broiled chicken
Plump young chicken, about
/s to 2
/i pounds ready-to-
cook (2 to 3 pounds dressed
Melted fat
Salt and pepper
Prepare chicken for cooking ac-
cording to directions on page 39.
Split the bird down the back and,
if desired, cut into halves through
the breastbone. Break joints and
cut off wing tips.
Brush chicken on both sides with
melted fat, sprinkle with salt and
pepper, and dust lightly with flour.
Preheat the broiler and grease
broiler rack lightly. Place chicken
on the rack, skin side down, with
highest part 4 to 5 inches from the
Turn the bird several times as it
browns so that it will cook evenly.
Baste often with the pan drippings or
other melted fat. Cook until well
done—35 to 45 minutes.
If more convenient, cook the
chicken partly done in the broiler
and finish in a moderate oven (350°
Menu suggestion
Serve with broiled tomatoes,
creamed potatoes, and for dessert
have lemon sponge.
For broiled tomatoes, brush cut
sides of tomato halves with melted
fat, season with salt and pepper, and
broil with chicken for the last 10 to
15 minutes.
869142°—50 6

Fried chicken
Plump young chicken, 1
/2 to 3
pounds ready-to-cook (2 to 4
pounds dressed weight)
Salt, pepper, flour
Prepare chicken for cooking ac-
cording to the directions on page 39.
Cut in serving pieces.
Season chicken with salt and pep-
per and roll in flour.
Heat fat (about %-inch deep) in a
heavy fry pan.
Put the thickest pieces of chicken
in the fat first. Do not crowd—
leave enough space for the fat to
come up around each piece.
Cook slowly, turning often. Do
not cover pan. The thickest pieces
will take from 20 to 35 minutes to
After the pieces have been
browned, cooking may be finished in
a moderate oven (350° F.) if more
French-fried chicken.—Gut a young
chicken (about 1% pounds ready-to-
cook weight) in quarters or smaller
pieces. Dip in thin batter made with
1 cup sifted flour, 1 egg, % cup milk,
and % teaspoon salt.
Heat fat in a deep pan to 350° F.
Fry chicken, a few pieces at a time,
10 to 15 minutes.
Menu suggestion
Serve with parsley potatoes,
creamed onions, and wilted greens.
For dessert have pumpkin chiffon
Stewed chicken
Use a plump stewing chicken, 3 to
4 pounds ready-to-cook (4 to 5}£
pounds dressed weight).
Prepare chicken for cooking ac-
cording to the directions on page 39.
Leave whole or cut in serving-size
To cook whole.—Place the bird on a
rack in a deep pan. Add enough
hot water to half cover the bird, and
salt the water lightly. Cover the
Cook over low heat until the
chicken is tender (3 to 4 hours).
Turn the bird occasionally for even
Cook giblets with the chicken,
removing them as soon as done.
Liver will be done first.
Stewed chicken is more moist if
cooled in the broth, breast down, for
an hour or so.
Thicken the broth for gravy. If
desired, brush whole chicken with
fat and brown in a moderate oven.
To cook in pieces.—Put pieces of
chicken in a pan and add hot water
just to cover. Season lightly with
salt. Cover the pan.
Cook over low heat until done.
Pieces take about as long to cook as
a whole bird.
If you like, brown the pieces of
chicken in a little hot fat in a fry
pan before serving.
Menu suggestion
Serve with rice, jellied tomato
salad, and spiced prune cake.

Creamed chicken
2 tablespoons table (at
1/2 cup chopped celery
11/2 teaspoons chopped onion
1 tablespoon chopped green
% cup (lour
11/2 cups chicken broth
1/2 cup milk or cream
1V<2 cups diced cooked chicken
Salt to taste
Heat the fat and cook the celery,
onion, and green pepper in it until
Blend the flour into the fat and veg-
etable mixture. Stir in the chicken
broth and milk or cream and cook
to a smooth sauce, stirring con-
Add chicken to sauce and season
with salt.
Heat the mixture thoroughly and
serve on rice, toast, or biscuits.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with snap beans and shred-
ded carrot and raisin salad. Have
fruit sherbet and crisp cookies for
For variety
Creamed chicken with peas or mush-
rooms.—Omit onion and green pep-
per and add }{ cup cooked peas or }(,
cup chopped mushrooms browned in
Cooked turkey or giblets may be
used instead of chicken.
Casserole of chicken with

Stewing chicken, 3 to 4 pounds
r e a d y - t o - c o o k (4 to 5
pounds dressed weight)
Salt and pepper
2 tablespoons fat
2 cups hot water
2 medium-sized carrots, sliced
11/2 cups chopped celery
1 small onion, chopped
1 small green pepper, chopped
Gut chicken in serving pieces.
Season with salt and pepper, sprinkle
with flour.
Heat fat in a heavy pan and brown
the chicken in it. Remove chicken
to a casserole—or leave in the pan if
it is suitable for oven use. Add hot
water and }{ teaspoon salt. Cover
Cook in the oven at 325° F. (slow)
until almost tender—about 2}£
hours. Add water as needed during
cooking to keep liquid at original
Add vegetables and cook 30 min-
utes longer.
Mix 2 tablespoons flour with a
little cold water. Add several spoon-
fuls of hot liquid from the casserole.
Stir mixture into liquid in casserole.
Cook 10 to 15 minutes longer.
6 to 8 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with lirna beans and fruit
salad on watercress, with tapioca
pudding for dessert.

Fish brings delicacy of flavor and texture to a wide variety of main dishes.
Recipes in this section add more goodness to fish with crispy crumbs . . . piquant
mustard sauce . . . bread stuffing and bacon . . . onions . . . or nippy cheese.
Fish is a high-quality protein food, often economical, that deserves more use
in our menus. Some 160 varieties of fish are sold in the United States but only
about seven are well-known to the average homemaker.
Most fresh and frozen fish come in convenient fillets (slices of fish cut length-
wise away from the backbone) and steaks (crosswise slices). Fillets and steaks
need no preparation before cooking and have no waste.
Buying pointers on fish will be found on page 23. Amounts of fish to buy per
serving are given on page 19.
Keep uncooked fish well iced or in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Thaw
frozen fish in a cold place or start cooking without thawing. Never refreeze
fish after it thaws.
Cookery points
How to cook fish depends on their fat content. Best for baking and broiling
are fat fish such as salmon, shad, mackerel, lake trout, and whitefish.
Lean fish such as cod, flounder, haddock, pike, rosefish, sea bass, striped bass,
perch, and carp are preferred for cooking in water because they are firmer
after cooking. But they may be baked or broiled if basted with melted fat.
Both fat and lean fish are suitable for frying.
Most important point in fish cookery—don't overcook. Cook just until flesh
can be easily flaked.
Canned fish
In using canned fish, the more attractive higher grades are better for salads
or serving plain. For such dishes as casseroles or fish cakes, lower grades will do.
They are just as nutritious and flavorful as top quality.
The oil or salty liquid from canned fish adds flavor and food value to sea food
dishes. Use the oil, for instance, as fat in the white sauce in making creamed
tuna fish. Brine may be part of the liquid in jellied fish salad.

Pan-fried fish
1 pound fish Fillets or steaks
or small dressed fish
Salt and pepper
1 tablespoon water
1 egg, beaten
Fine crumbs or corn meal
Cut fillets or steaks in serving
pieces; leave small fish whole. Sea-
son on both sides with salt and
Add water to beaten egg. Dip
fish in egg mixture, then in crumbs
or corn meal. (The egg helps make
a crisp crust, but may be omitted.)
Heat fat—about % inch deep—in
a heavy pan.
Fry the fish slowly until brown on
one side; turn and fry on the other
Cooking time will be 10 minutes
or more, depending on the thick-
ness of the fish.
4 servings.
French-fried fish.—Prepare fish fil-
lets or steaks as for pan frying.
Half fill a deep kettle with melted
fat or oil. Heat to 375° F. (hot
enough to brown a 1-inch cube of
bread in 40 seconds). Place fish in
a wire frying basket and cook in the
hot fat until browned—3 to 5
Menu suggestion
Serve with creamed potatoes, snap
beans, and cucumber slices with
sour cream dressing. Have ginger-
bread for dessert.
Oven-fried fish
1 pound fish fillets or steaks
/2 cup milk
/2 tablespoon salt
1/2 cup fine bread crumbs
2 tablespoons melted fat
Cut fish in serving pieces. Dip it
in milk, with salt added, and roll in
Place fish in a greased baking pan
and pour the fat over it.
Bake at 500° F. (extremely hot
oven) until fish is tender and
brown—about 10 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with stuffed baked potatoes,
baked tomatoes, apple salad, and
peach cobbler.
Poached fish
Cut 1 pound fish fillets into serving
Tie the fish in a piece of cheese-
cloth and lower it into boiling salted
water (3 tablespoons salt to 2 quarts
Reduce heat and cook slowly about
10 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with tomato sauce, hash-
browned potatoes, creamed celery,
snap bean salad, and cookies.
Poached fish may also be used in
salad or in creamed or baked dishes.

Broiled fish
1 pound fish fillets or steaks or
small dressed fish
Salt and pepper
3 to 4 tablespoons melted fat
Preheat broiler.
Cut fillets or steaks into serving
pieces; split dressed fish down the
back. Sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Grease broiler rack lightly. Place
fish on rack, skin side up. Brush
with melted fat.
Place rack 2 to 3 inches from heat.
Broil fish 5 to 8 minutes or until
brown. Baste with fat. Turn, baste
other side, and broil until brown.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with rice, spinach, grape-
fruit salad, and have jelly roll for
Baked stuffed fish
3- or 4-pound dressed fish
/2 teaspoons salt
Bread stuffing made with 1 quart
crumbs (p. 41)
4 tablespoons melted fat
3 slices bacon, if desired
Wash and dry the fish. Sprinkle
inside and out with salt.
Fill body cavity of fish loosely with
stuffing. Sew the opening with needle
and cord or close with skewers.
Place fish in greased pan; brush
with fat. Lay bacon over top.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
40 to 60 minutes.
6 to 8 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with tartar sauce, scalloped
potatoes, peas and celery, and tossed
green salad. Baked apples make a
good dessert.
For variety
Bake fish without stuffing. Serve
with tomato sauce and mashed po-
Fish steaks baked in
mustard sauce
4 individual fish steaks
1 tablespoon melted fat
1 tablespoon flour
Salt and pepper to taste
/2 teaspoon dry mustard
% cup milk
/j. cup crumbs mixed with fat
Place steaks in a greased shallow
In a saucepan, blend fat and flour,
add seasonings and milk. Cook,
stirring, until thickened.
Pour this sauce over fish and
sprinkle with crumbs.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
30 to 35 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with golden potatoes, panned
cabbage, jellied tomato salad, and
banana cream pie.

Savory fish loaf
2 cups flaked cooked fish or 14-
ounce can
11/2 c°ps soft bread crumbs
% cup cooked or canned toma-
1 egg, beaten
2 tablespoons melted (at
1 tablespoon minced onion
1/4 teaspoon savory seasoning
Salt and pepper to taste
Combine all ingredients, pack into
greased loaf pan.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until firm—about 45 minutes.
6 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with pickle relish, baked
sweetpotatoes, lettuce salad, and
baked custard.
Fish shortcake
2 to 3 tablespoons chopped
4 tablespoons fat
4 tablespoons (lour
2 cups milk
1/3 cup grated cheese
11/2 cups (laked cooked fish
Salt and pepper ro taste
Hot biscuits or corn bread
Cook onion slowly in the fat until
tender. Blend in the flour. Add
milk slowly, stirring constantly, and
cook until the sauce is thickened.
Add cheese and fish. Season with
salt and pepper.
Heat the mixture through, stirring
occasionally. Serve on hot biscuits
or corn bread.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with broccoli and stuffed
tomato salad, with upside-down cake
for dessert.
For variety
Salmon potpie.—Prepare fish mix-
ture as above, using cooked or canned
salmon. Turn it into a greased bak-
ing dish, top with unbaked biscuits,
and bake at 425° F. (hot oven).
Fish and egg croquettes
11/2 cups (laked cooked or
canned fish
2 hard-cooked eggs, chopped
1 cup thick white sauce (p. 70)
Salt, pepper, lemon juice
Fine dry crumbs
Add fish and eggs to sauce, season
to taste with salt, pepper, and lemon
juice. Chill.
Shape mixture into eight cro-
quettes. Roll in crumbs.
Heat fat in a deep pan to 390° F.
(a 1 -inch cube of bread browns in 20
seconds). Fry the croquettes about
2 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with creamed peas and
stewed tomatoes, a relish plate, and
lime chiffon pie. '

Eggs, cheese, dry beans
The golden protein dishes made with eggs and cheese are happy choices
when meat, poultry, and fish take a holiday from your table. Beans too have
substantial goodness for main dishes plus the special virtue of economy.
These main dishes, many of them oven-baked, provide for servings of % cup
Eggs . . . in
fried, baked
shell, poached.
Eggs cooked in shell.—Wash eggs,
put them in a pan; cover completely
with cold water.
For soft-cooked eggs, heat water
slowly to simmering. Cover pan and
remove from heat. Let stand 3 to
5 minutes, the longer time for larger
number of eggs.
For hard-cooked eggs, bring water
to simmering and simmer 25 to 30
minutes. Do not let the water boil.
Serve the eggs hot or plunge them
at once into cold water.
Poached eggs.—Have salted water
boiling gently in a shallow pan.
Break eggs into a saucer, one at a
time, and slip them into the water.
Reheat water to simmering, take
pan from heat, and cover. Let stand
5 minutes, or until eggs are of
desired firmness.
Fried eggs.—Heat fat in a fry pan.
Break eggs into a saucer, then slip
them into the fat. Sprinkle with
salt and pepper. Cook over low
heat until whites are firm.
To cook the tops, dip hot fat over
eggs. Or cover pan tightly. Or
flip the eggs over after they have
begun to set.
Baked eggs.—Break eggs into a
shallow greased baking dish. Add 1
tablespoon milk for each egg and
dot with fat. Sprinkle with salt and
pepper. Cover the pan.
Bake at 325° F. (slow oven) 20 to
25 minutes, or until eggs are of
desired firmness.
£99 and potato scallop
1 cup thin white sauce (p. 70)
1 tablespoon minced parsley
Salt and pepper to taste
2 or 3 medium-sized cooked
potatoes, sliced
4 to 6 hard-cooked eggs, sliced
Sort bread crumbs
Make white sauce. Add parsley,
salt, and pepper.
Place alternate layers of potatoes
and eggs in a greased baking dish
and pour the white sauce over.
Sprinkle with bread crumbs.
Bake at 375° F. (moderate oven)
15 to 20 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with broccoli and a tart
green salad, with apple pie and
cheese for dessert.

Poached egg surprise
1 cup milk
2 tablespoons table fat
2 tablespoons flour
% teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons chopped green
4 slices toast
Soft sharp cheese
4 eggs
Make white
flour, and salt
page 70. Add
Spread the
Poach eggs
Place on the
sauce over all.
4 servings.
sauce of milk, fat,
by method given on
green pepper.
toast thickly with
until firm (p. 48).
toast and pour hot
Serve at once.
Menu suggestion
Serve with snap beans, stuffed to-
mato salad, and chocolate cake.
Deviled eggs
Peel shells from warm hard-cooked
eggs (p. 48). Cut eggs in half cross-
wise or lengthwise.
Mash warm yolks; season with
salt, pepper, melted fat, a little
mustard and vinegar. Or mix with
salad dressing, salt, and pepper.
Fill whites with mixture and gar-
nish with parsley.
Menu suggestion
Serve with potato chips, asparagus,
fresh vegetable salad, and orange
chiffon pie.
Eggs creole
3 tablespoons chopped onion
3 tablespoons chopped green
2 tablespoons melted fat
/2 cups cooked or canned
% cup water
1/3 cup uncooked rice
/2 teaspoon salt
4 eggs
Cook the onion and green pepper
in fat in a large fry pan until the
onion is lightly browned. Add the
tomatoes and water and heat to
Add the uncooked rice, salt, and
pepper. Cover and cook over low
heat until rice is tender—25 to 30
minutes. Stir occasionally with a
fork to keep from sticking. If the
rice becomes dry, add a little more
Drop eggs on rice, cover; simmer
5 to 10 minutes, or until eggs are as
firm as desired.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with sausages or bacon, and
green lima beans, with stewed dried
or fresh fruit and cookies or cake
for dessert.
For variety
Instead of poaching eggs on the
rice, top the cooked mixture with 4
to 6 quartered or sliced hard-cooked

Scrambled eggs with
cottage cheese

1 tablespoon (at
1/2 teaspoon salt
A cup milk
6 eggs, slightly beaten
% cup cottage cheese
4 slices toast
Heat fat in fry pan.
Stir seasonings and milk into eggs.
Pour into fry pan and cook slowly,
stirring occasionally.
When eggs are thickened, mix in
the cottage cheese.
Serve at once on toast.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with hash-browned potatoes,
lettuce salad, and cherry or berry pie.
Baked eggs in pepper rings
4 large green pepper rings about
1/2 inch thick
4 eggs
Salt and pepper
4 tablespoons milk
Crumbs mixed with (at
Cook green pepper rings in lightly
salted water for 5 minutes. Drain.
Place rings in hot greased shallow
baking dish. Break an egg into each
Sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Pour a tablespoon of milk over each
egg. Cover with crumbs.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until the eggs are set—20 to 25
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with potatoes in cheese sauce,
fresh tomato wedges, and apple
brown betty.
Tomato rabbit
2 tablespoons (at
1/2 small onion, chopped
/3 cup (inely cut celery
/2 small green pepper, chopped
1 % tablespoons flour
/2 cups cooked or canned
1/2 teaspoon salt
11/2 cups grated cheese
2 eggs, well beaten
Toast or crackers
Melt fat in a heavy fry pan. Cook
onion, celery, and green pepper in
it a few minutes. Blend in flour.
Add tomatoes and salt. Cook until
thickened, stirring often.
Remove from heat; add cheese.
Stir until cheese is melted.
Stir some of the mixture into eggs.
Pour back into fry pan and cook until
Serve on toast or crackers.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with cauliflower and relishes,
with fresh or stewed fruit and cookies
for dessert.

Macaroni baked in
cheese sauce
Put 1 cup cooked macaroni in a
greased baking dish. (Spaghetti or
noodles may be used instead of maca-
roni.) Cover with \\}{ cups cheese
sauce (p. 70). If desired, top with
crumbs mixed with fat.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until heated through—about 15 min-
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with spinach and hard-
cooked eggs, pineapple slices on
lettuce, and have chocolate cake for
Cheese-rice timbales
% cup finely chopped green
1 tablespoon finely chopped
2 tablespoons melted fat
1 tablespoon flour
% cup milk
Vs teaspoon salt
t/2 teaspoon dry mustard
/4 pound cheese, grated (about
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup cooked rice
Cook green pepper and onion in
fat until tender.
Blend in flour; add milk and cook,
stirring constantly, until thickened.
Add the salt and mustard.
Remove from heat. Add cheese
and stir until it is melted. If neces-
sary, place pan over very low heat to
melt cheese.
Stir sauce into eggs; add rice.
Turn into greased custard cups.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
35 minutes or until firm.
Unmold and serve plain or with
tomato sauce (p. 71).
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with snap beans, coleslaw,
and spiced prune cake.
Peanut-cheese loaf
% cup cooked oatmeal, wheat
cereal, or rice
% cup chopped green pepper
3 tablespoons minced onion
1 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons lemon juice
1 cup chopped salted peanuts
% cup fine crumbs
1/4 pound cheese, grated (about
/3 cup milk
Combine all ingredients.
Put mixture into a greased loaf
pan and bake at 350° F. (moderate
oven) about 1 hour. Serve hot with
mushroom or tomato sauce.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with succotash, stuffed
celery, and orange bavarian cream.

Corn and cheese fondue
1/3 cup bread cubes
11/2 cups cream-style corn
2 teaspoons minced onion
2 teaspoons chopped green
/4 cup finely grated cheese
/2 teaspoon salt
2 eggs, well beaten
P hot milk
Blend all ingredients.
Pour the mixture into a greased
loaf pan and set in a pan of hot water.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until set—about 1 hour.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with brussels sprouts, broiled
tomatoes with bacon strips, celery,
and olives, and fruit tapioca.
Spaghetti and cabbage with
cheese sauce
%. cup spaghetti broken in inch
11/2 tablespoons table rat
/2 tablespoons (lour
/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
"14 pound cheese, grated (about
2 cups shredded cabbage
Crumbs mixed with melted (at
Cook the spaghetti in lightly salted
boiling water until tender. Drain.
Make a sauce of the fat, flour, salt,
and milk. Remove sauce from the
heat and add the cheese, stirring un-
til cheese is melted.
Place alternate layers of spaghetti
and cabbage in a greased baking dish
or pan. Pour sauce over the top and
sprinkle with the crumbs. Cover.
Bake about 40 minutes at 350° F.
(moderate oven), removing cover for
last 15 minutes so crumbs will brown.
Menu suggestion
Serve with parslied carrots, mixed
vegetable salad, and broiled grape-
fruit for dessert.
Boston baked beans
2 cups navy beans
11/2 quarts cold watej,
1/1 pound salt pork
4 tablespoons molasses
1 to 2 teaspoons salt
/2 teaspoon mustard
Hot water
Wash beans. Add water, boil 2
minutes, then remove from heat, and
let soak 1 hour. Or, add water and
let soak overnight in cool place.
Boil soaked beans gently in the
same water for 45 minutes or until
they begin to soften.
Make cuts through rind of the
pork about % inch apart. Put half
the pork in a bean pot or deep baking
dish. Add beans and bury rest of the
pork in them, exposing only the
scored rind.
Mix molasses, salt, and mustard
with a little hot water. Pour over

the beans, and add enough hot water
to cover beans. Cover bean pot.
Bake at 250° F. (very slow oven)
6 or 7 hours; add a little hot water
from time to time.
During the last hour of baking
remove the lid to let the beans brown
6 to 8 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with frankfurters or cold cuts
and brown bread, and a relish plate
of raw cauliflower, green pepper
strips, and celery, with fresh fruit for
Bean sausages
2 cups cooked dry beans
% cup bread cubes
1 egg, beaten
t/2 teaspoon sage or savory
Salt and pepper to taste
Fine dry crumbs
Mash the beans. Mix them well
with the bread cubes and egg. Add
the seasonings and moisten with milk.
Shape the mixture in the form of
sausages and roll in crumbs.
Brown in a little hot fat, turning to
form a good crust all over. Cook
slowly about 20 minutes.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with panned cabbage; car-
rot, celery, and onion salad; and
banana cream pie.
Lima beans in fomato sauce
1 cup dry lima beans
3 cups water
% teaspoon salt
1 cup cooked or canned toma-
Vz c°P chopped onion
4 slices bacon
Wash beans. Add water, boil 2
minutes, then remove from heat and
let soak 1 hour. Or, add water and
let soak overnight in a cool place.
Add % teaspoon salt to beans and
boil gently in the same water 45
minutes. Drain.
To bake.—Put onion and beans in
a greased baking dish. Add toma-
toes and rest of salt. Arrange bacon
strips on top.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until beans are tender and most of
the liquid has been absorbed—45
minutes to 1 hour.
To cook on top of stove.—Soak, boil,
and drain the beans as above. Chop
bacon and brown it with the onion
in fry pan. Add beans, tomatoes,
and salt.
Boil gently until beans are tender—
about 30 minutes—stirring occa-
sionally to keep from sticking. Add
a little water or more tomato if the
mixture gets too dry.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with peanut butter biscuits,
tossed green salad with cottage or
other cheese, and have ice cream
for dessert.

Green, gold, red, and creamy white—whatever their hue, vegetables give
the menu planner a wide range to choose from. Many of them are rich with
vitamins and minerals too.
The skill of a good cook lies in cooking vegetables to retain these valuable
nutrients. Fortunately, well-cooked vegetables are prettier and more colorful.
Here are some rules:
1. Trim sparingly such greens as cabbage, head lettuce, chicory. Dark
outer leaves are rich in iron, calcium, and vitamins.
2. Cook potatoes in their skins to start such dishes as hash-browned potatoes
or potato salad. Jackets keep nutrients in.
3. Cook vegetables quickly and serve hot. The longer vegetables are
exposed to heat and air, the more vitamin C they lose.
4. Use as little cooking water as possible and save the liquids. These and
liquids from canned vegetables contain vitamin C, the B vitamins, and iron
which escape into the water. Use any left-over liquids to flavor soups and
Cooking times
In using the Boiling Guide for Fresh Vegetables on the opposite page, re-
member that vegetables may call for shorter or longer cooking than given,
depending on quality and variety. The altitude at which you live will also
affect boiling times.
Cook frozen vegetables according to directions on the package. Commer-
cially canned vegetables need only reheating. Home-canned vegetables should
be brought to a rolling boil and boiled at least 10 minutes. Boil home-canned
spinach and corn 20 minutes.
Be especially careful not to overcook vegetables when using a pressure
cooker. Even a few seconds' overcooking can lower eating quality and nutri-
tive value. Follow the cooking times that come with your cooker. For very
fresh and tender vegetables, you may be able to cut the time.
How to choose high-quality vegetables is given on page 25. Number of
servings per pound is given on page 20; storage pointers are on page 27.
Recipes given here provide about % cup vegetable per serving.

Asparagus ............... 1 0-20
Lima .................. 20-30
Snap, 1 -inch pieces ...... 15-30
Young, whole ........... 30-45
Older, whole ........... 45-90
Broccoli, separated ........ 1 0-20
Brussels sprouts ............ 1 0-20
Shredded .............. 3-10
Quartered ............. 10-15
Young, whole ........... 15-25
Older, sliced ........... 15-25
Separated .............. 8-1 5
Whole ................ 20-30
Celery, cut up ............. 15-20
Collards, whole ........... 1 0-20
Corn, on cob .............. 5-1 5
Vegetable , !'
? .
Beet, young 5-1 5
Dandelion 10-20
Kale 10-25
Turnip 15-30
Kohlrabi, sliced 20-25
Okra, whole or sliced 10-20
Onions, whole or half 20-40
Parsnips, whole 20-40
Peas 8-20
Potatoes, whole or half 25-45
Rutabagas, pared, cut up. • • 20-30
Summer, sliced 10-20
Winter, cut up 20-40
Spinach, whole 3-10
Sweetpotatoes, whole 25-35
Swiss chard 10-20
Tomatoes, cut up 7-15
Turnips, cut up 15-20

Ways to serve boiled
Hot, seasoned.—Any vegetable or
a combination of two or more such
as carrots and peas, or snap beans
with celery and onions.
Drain vegetables, except tomatoes,
and season with salt, pepper, and
fat. Or mix with a little chopped
cooked bacon or ham. For extra
flavor add parsley, thyme, or other
Mashed.—Potatoes, sweetpotatoes,
turnips, rutabagas, kohlrabi, carrots,
winter squash.
Drain the cooked vegetable and
mash in cooking pan or put through
food press. Add hot milk or cream
to moisten if needed. Season with
salt, pepper, and table fat. Beat
until fluffy.
Creamed or scalloped.—Peas, carrots,
celery, cabbage, asparagus, broccoli,
potatoes, snap beans, onions, lima
beans, cauliflower, spinach.
For four servings use 1 cup thin or
medium white sauce (p. 70) with 2
cups cooked vegetable.
To cream, simply mix vegetables
with white sauce and heat thor-
oughly. Potatoes and lima beans,
because they are drier than the other
vegetables, are usually preferred with
the thin sauce.
To scallop, combine vegetables and
white sauce, put in a baking dish.
Top with crumbs or bread cubes
mixed with melted fat, and bake at
350° F. (moderate oven) until the
mixture is heated through and the
crumbs are browned.
Fried or browned.—Potatoes, sweet-
potatoes, parsnips.
Cut cooked vegetables in half, or
slice or dice them. Heat 2 or 3 table-
spoons table fat or drippings in a fry
pan and add vegetables. Brown
lightly, turning frequently.
Glazed.—Sweetpotatoes, carrots,
parsnips, onions.
Melt 2 tablespoons fat in a heavy
fry pan. Add % cup brown sugar
and 1 tablespoon water, and blend.
Add 2 cups drained cooked sweet-
potatoes, carrots, or parsnips, cut in
strips or large pieces. Cook over low
heat, turning several times, until the
sirup is very thick and the vegetables
are well-coated—15 to 20 minutes.
For glazed onions, prepare 1 quart
sliced raw onions. Blend 2 table-
spoons fat and }{ cup brown sugar
in a fry pan as above, but omit the
water. Add the onions and cook
over low heat, turning frequently,
until tender—20 to 30 minutes.
4 servings.
"Raw-fried" vegetables
Onions, potatoes, or carrots may
be used.
Peel onions; scrape or pare potatoes
or carrots. Slice the vegetable thin.
For four servings use 1 quart onions
or 2 cups potatoes or carrots.
Heat 2 tablespoons fat in a heavy
fry pan. Add vegetable. Cover
closely and cook over moderate heat
20 to 30 minutes or until tender,
turning several times for even brown-

Panned vegetables
Use cabbage, kale, collards, spin-
ach, okra, or summer squash.
Finely shred cabbage, kale, col-
lards, or spinach. Slice okra or
summer squash thin.
For four servings use 2 quarts
spinach; 1 quart cabbage, kale, or
collards; 3 cups okra or summer
squash. Measure vegetable after
Heat 2 tablespoons table fat or
drippings in a heavy fry pan. Add
vegetable and sprinkle with salt.
Cover pan to hold in steam. Cook
over low heat; stir once in a while to
keep from sticking.
Cabbage will be done in 5 to 10
minutes; other vegetables take longer.
Vegetable souffle
/2 tablespoon finely chopped
/2 tablespoon finely chopped
green pepper
1 tablespoon finely chopped
2 tablespoons melted fat
2 tablespoons flour
Vs cup milk
/2 teaspoon salt
Pepper to taste
% cup diced cooked vegetables
2 eggs, separated
Brown the onion, green pepper,
and celery lightly in the fat. Blend
in flour and add milk. Cook over
low heat, stirring constantly, until
thickened. Season with salt and
Stir vegetables into sauce; add hot
mixture to beaten egg yolk,.
Beat egg whites stiff but not dry.
Fold in vegetable mixture. Pour
into greased baking dish.
Bake at 325° F. (slow oven) 40 to
50 minutes or until set.
4 servings.
Wilted greens
Melt 2 tablespoons drippings in
heavy pan. Add a little chopped
onion, and cook until soft and yellow.
Stir in % cup vinegar, then add 1
quart leaf lettuce or other greens
washed and cut. Cover and heat a
few minutes until greens are wilted.
Season with salt and pepper. Serve
hot. 4 servings.
Scalloped asparagus
and spaghetti

Spaghetti (about % of 8-ounce
1 cup drained cooked or canned
1 cup thin white sauce (p. 70)
Seasonings to taste
Crumbs mixed with far
Cook spaghetti in boiling salted
water; drain.
Place alternate layers of spaghetti
and asparagus in a greased baking
Season white sauce and pour over
spaghetti and asparagus.
Sprinkle with crumbs and bake at
350° F. (moderate oven) until golden
brown—about 20 minutes.
4 servings.

Spanish snap beans
1 tablespoon fat
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1/3 cup chopped green pepper
1 cup cooked or canned toma-
/2 cups cooked or canned snap
Salt and pepper
Toasted bread cubes
Heat the fat and brown the onion
and green pepper in it. Add toma-
toes and cook slowly about 15
Add beans and season to taste
with salt and pepper.
Heat thoroughly. Turn into serv-
ing dish and top with bread cubes.
4 servings.
Beefs in honey sauce
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon water or beet juice
2 tablespoons vinegar
1/i cup honey
1 tablespoon table fat
2 cups diced or sliced beets,
cooked or canned (No. 2 can)
Mix the cornstarch and salt.
Blend in the water or juice from
canned beets. Add vinegar, honey,
and fat. Cook slowly, stirring con-
stantly, until thickened.
Add sauce to beets; let stand at
least 10 minutes to blend flavors.
4 servings.
Cauliflower au grafin
1 medium-sized cauliflower
1/2 cup grated cheese (about 2
1 cup hot medium white sauce
(p. 70)
Fine crumbs mixed with fat
Cook cauliflower in lightly salted
boiling water until just tender—20 to
30 minutes. Drain. Place in greased
baking dish.
Stir cheese into hot white sauce and
pour sauce over cauliflower. Sprinkle
crumbs over top.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
about 20 minutes, or until crumbs are
4 servings.
Corn pudding
11/3 cups drained whole-kernel
2 eggs, beaten
1 tablespoon melted fat
11/3 cups milk
1/4 teaspoon salt
Mix corn, eggs, fat, and milk. Sea-
son with salt and pepper.
Pour into greased baking dish and
set in a pan of hot water.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until set—50 to 60 minutes.
4 servings.
NOTE: 1 egg and % cup soft bread
crumbs may be used instead of 2
eggs. With cream-style corn use 1}{
cups corn and reduce milk to % cup.

Scalloped corn
2 cups cooked or canned whole-
kernel corn, drained
Salt and pepper
1 cup thin white sauce (p. 70)
Fine crumbs mixed with table (at
Put corn into a greased baking dish.
Season, add sauce, top with crumbs.
Bake 30 to 45 minutes at 350° F.
(moderate oven).
4 servings.
Scalloped eggplant
1 medium-sized eggplant
4 tablespoons table fat
2 tablespoons chopped green
2 tablespoons chopped onion
2 cups cooked or canned toma-
1 teaspoon salt
% cup bread cubes
Pare the eggplant and cut it into
small even pieces.
Melt 2 tablespoons of the fat in a
fry pan. Brown green pepper and
onion in the fat.
Add tomatoes, salt, pepper, and
eggplant; simmer 10 minutes. Pour
into greased baking dish.
Melt rest of fat and mix with
bread cubes. Spread, over top of
eggplant mixture.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
20 minutes or until eggplant is
tender and bread cubes are brown.
4 servings.
Stewed okra and tomatoes
2 tablespoons bacon drippings
or other fat
1 small onion, chopped
2 cups sliced okra
2 cups cooked or canned toma-
/2 teaspoon salt
Melt fat in fry pan. Brown onion
and okra slightly, stirring as it cooks.
Add tomatoes and salt.
Cook over moderate heat until
vegetables are tender and mixture
is thick—about 20 minutes. Stir
occasionally to prevent sticking.
Season with pepper and more salt,
if needed.
4 servings.
For variety
Add 3 tablespoons rice with the
tomatoes. Cook until rice is ten-
der—20 to 30 minutes. Add a little
water if needed.
Baked onions
Peel medium-sized sweet onions;
cut in half crosswise. Place in bak-
ing dish, sprinkle with salt and pep-
per, and dot with table fat. Add
enough water to cover bottom of
Cover and bake at 375° F. (mod-
erate oven) about 30 minutes. Top
with crumbs and bake uncovered 15
to 20 minutes longer, until crumbs
are brown and onions tender.

Stuffed green peppers
4 medium-sized green peppers
2 tablespoons fat
1/4 cup chopped celery
1 cup cooked rice
2 ounces cheese, grated (about
1/4 teaspoon salt
Crumbs mixed with melted fat
Cut out stem ends of peppers, and
remove seeds. Boil peppers 5 min-
utes in salted water; drain.
Heat fat and cook celery in it until
tender. Mix with rice and cheese;
add salt.
Fill pepper cups with the rice mix-
ture; top with crumbs. Place pep-
pers in a half inch of hot water in a
baking dish.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until peppers are tender and crumbs
browned—about 30 minutes.
4 servings.
Golden potatoes
4 medium-sized potatoes
3 tablespoons melted table fat
1/3 cup crushed dry breakfast
1/2 teaspoon salt
Boil potatoes in jackets 20 to 30
minutes or until almost done. Peel.
Goat each potato with melted fat
and roll in cereal mixed with salt.
Place on greased baking sheet and
bake at 500° F. (extremely hot oven)
about 30 minutes.
4 servings.
Scalloped potatoes
2 medium-sized potatoes, pared
and sliced
1 tablespoon flour
/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons table Fat
% cup hot milk
Place half the potatoes in a greased
baking dish, sprinkle with half the
flour, salt, and pepper, and dot with
half the fat. Repeat with the other
half of the ingredients.
Pour milk over the top and cover
the baking dish.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
30 minutes. Uncover and bake
about 30 minutes longer, until po-
tatoes are done and browned on top.
Add more milk during cooking if
potatoes become dry.
4 servings.
Baked stuffed potatoes
or sweefpotatoes
Select medium-sized potatoes or
sweetpotatoes. Rub with fat if soft
skin is desired.
Bake at 425° F. (hot oven) until
soft—35 to 60 minutes, depending
on size.
Cut slice off top of potato, scoop
out inside. Mash potato and season
with salt and table fat. Add pepper
and hot milk to white potatoes,
brown sugar and cinnamon to sweet-
Stuff shells with the mashed potato
and put back in oven a few minutes
to brown.

Scalloped sweefpotafoes
and oranges
2 medium-sized sweetpofatoes,
cooked, peeled, and sliced
1 large orange, peeled and
1 tablespoon grated orange rind
2 tablespoons sugar
2 tablespoons table (at
1/3 cup orange juice
Place a layer of sweetpotatoes in a
greased baking dish, add a layer of
orange slices. Sprinkle with orange
rind, salt, and sugar, and dot with
Repeat until all ingredients are
used. Pour orange juice over the
top. Cover dish.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
45 minutes to 1 hour.
4 servings.
Baked squash
Cut acorn squash in half, Hubbard
squash in 3- or 4-inch squares.
Place squash in a baking pan, cut
side down. Pour a little water into
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until partly done—about 30 minutes
for acorn squash, 1 hour for Hub-
Turn pieces over, sprinkle with
salt and brown sugar, and dot with
table fat.
Continue baking until squash is
soft—about 20 minutes for acorn
squash, 40 minutes for Hubbard.
Spinach au gratin
/2 pound spinach, chopped fine
2 ounces cheese, grated (about
3/4 cup hot medium white sauce
(P. 70)
Slices of crisped bacon
Crumbs mixed with table fat
Cook the spinach a few minutes in
a covered pan without added water.
Add cheese to hot white sauce and
stir until melted.
Mix spinach and sauce and pour
into a baking dish. Crumble the
bacon over the top and sprinkle with
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until crumbs are brown—about 20
4 servings.
Baked tomafoes
Wash medium-sized tomatoes, ripe
or green, and cut off the stem ends.
Place tomatoes in a baking dish,
sprinkle with salt and pepper, and
dot with table fat. Add just enough
water to cover bottom of dish.
Cover and bake at 375° F. (mod-
erate oven) until tomatoes are soft—
about 30 minutes for ripe tomatoes,
45 minutes for green.
If you like, sprinkle crumbs mixed
with table fat over tops of tomatoes
when they are about half done, and
finish baking with dish uncovered
to brown the crumbs.

Salads and
salad dressings
Salads bring fruits and vegetables to the table crisp, cool, and color-bright.
With greens, fresh vegetables, or gay fruit, they add a light touch. Or they
may be the sturdy kind that feature such items as meat, potatoes, cheese, or
Light salads are usually served in portions of about J£ cup. Heavier salads,
often used as main dishes, may provide about 1 cup for each serving.
Start with good fruits and vegetables
Selecting top-quality fruits and vegetables in market or garden is a good start
toward a good salad. Crisply fresh food has eye and taste appeal, and the best
nourishment, besides.
Watch for smooth, colorful skins on apples, plums, cucumbers, if they are to
join the salad with jackets on.
Give salad foods the best kitchen care to avoid bruising and hold freshness.
If prepared ahead of time, store salad ingredients without dressing in refrigera-
tor. Keeping them cool saves nutrients.
How to select fruits and vegetables is given on page 25. Suggestions on stor-
ing them will be found on page 27.
What kind of dressing?
What shall it be—sweet or tart, thick or thin—for the salad dressing? The
answer lies in your family's taste.
Main-dish salads made with meat, fish, poultry, eggs, beans, cheese, or po-
tatoes usually call for a mayonnaise-type or cooked salad dressing. But some
of these more substantial salads are good with tart french dressing—salad oil
combined with lemon juice or vinegar plus seasonings.
Tart french dressing is the most likely choice for vegetable salads and vege-
table-fruit combinations. But some vegetable salads may well take a mayon-
naise or cooked dressing.
Reserve the sweet clear french dressings for fruit salads. Mayonnaise made
milder with whipped cream or thinned and sweetened with fruit juice is good
for fruit salads too.

For appetite appeal
Chill ingredients before mixing—except for molded salads.
Provide tartness in the body of salad or dressing.
Use salad greens other than lettuce sometimes. Have you tried chicory,
escarole, endive, kale, spinach, dandelion greens, romaine, watercress, and
Chinese cabbage?
Sprinkle orange, lemon, lime, or pineapple juice on fruits that may turn
dark—apples, peaches, and bananas, for instance.
For tossed green salads, tear greens in fairly large pieces or cut with scissors.
Larger pieces give more body to the salad.
Prevent wilting and sogginess by drying the greens used in salads, draining
canned foods well before adding to salad, using just enough salad dressing to
moisten. For raw vegetable salads, add dressing at the last minute.
Fruit combinations
1. Sliced pineapple, apricot halves, sweet red cherries.
2. Watermelon balls, peach slices, orange slices.
3. Grapefruit sections, banana slices, berries or cherries.
4. Grapefruit sections, unpared apple slices.
5. Peach slices, pear slices, halves of red plums.
6. Pineapple wedges, banana slices, strawberries.
7. Cooked dried fruit, white cherries, red raspberries.
Fruit and vegetable combinations
1. Shredded raw carrots, diced apples, raisins.
2. Sliced or ground cranberries, diced celery and apples, orange sections.
3. Thin cucumber slices, pineapple cubes.
4. Avocado and grapefruit sections, tomato slices.
5. Shredded cabbage, orange sections, crushed pineapple.
Vegetable combinations
1. Grated carrots, diced celery, cucumber slices.
2. Spinach, endive, or lettuce, with tomato wedges.
3. Sliced raw cauliflower flowerets, chopped green pepper, celery, pimiento.
4. Shredded cabbage, cucumber cubes, slivers of celery.
5. Cubed cooked beets, thinly sliced celery, sweet onions.
6. Cooked whole-kernel corn and shredded snap beans, sweet pickles, onion

Jellied meat salad
31/2 teaspoons gelatin
3 tablespoons cold water
1 cup hot broth (From meat or
poultry) or canned consomme
1 teaspoon onion juice
Salt to taste
1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon
1 cup chopped cooked meat or
1,4 cup cooked or canned peas
2 tablespoons chopped celery
2 tablespoons sliced pimiento
Sprinkle gelatin on water and
soak a few minutes. Dissolve in hot
Add onion juice, salt, and vinegar
or lemon juice. Chill until thick
enough to hold solid food in place.
Stir in meat, peas, celery, and
pimiento. Pour into small loaf pan
or individual molds and chill until
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve as the main dish with
creamed vegetable, crisp relishes,
custard pie.
For variety
Jellied fish salad.—Use flaked fish
instead of meat. Make gelatin base
with water, tomato juice, cooking
liquid from poached fish (p. 45),
or brine from canned salmon.
Chopped cucumber and sliced olives
may take the place of celery and
Peanut-prune salad
12 cooked prunes
1/3 cup cottage cheese
1 teaspoon grated orange rind
2 tablespoons chopped peanuts
Salt to taste
Pit and chill prunes.
Combine cottage cheese, orange
rind, peanuts, and salt.
Moisten this mixture with mayon-
naise dressing and stuff into prunes.
Serve on salad greens.
4 servings.
Pineapple-cottage cheese mold
2 teaspoons gelatin
3 tablespoons cold water
1 cup pineapple juice or pine-
apple juice plus water
2 tablespoons lemon juice
2 tablespoons sugar
Pinch of salt
1/2 cup drained crushed pine-
apple (9-ounce can)
1/3 cup finely chopped celery
1/3 cup cottage cheese
Sprinkle gelatin on cold water and
soak a few minutes. Heat fruit
juices, add sugar, salt, and gelatin.
Stir until gelatin is dissolved.
Chill until thick enough to hold
solid food in place. Stir in the
pineapple, celery, and cottage cheese.
Chill until firm.
4 servings.

Red apple salad
4 firm fart apples
11/2 cups sugar
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup red cinnamon candies
3 cups water
1/2 cup cottage cheese, or 3 to 4
ounces cream cheese
1/4 cup chopped green pepper
Pare and core apples.
Add sugar, salt, and candies to
the water. Put over heat and stir
until dissolved.
Cook apples slowly in this sirup
in covered pan until just tender,
turning occasionally to color evenly.
Drain and chill.
Mix cheese with green pepper and
stuff the apples.
Serve on watercress or other dark
greens. 4 servings.
For variety
Stuffed tomato salad.—Use cheese
mixture in raw tomatoes.
Kidney bean salad
2 cups drained cooked or canned
kidney beans
/3 cup thin tart dressing
1 small onion sliced in rings
/3 cup chopped celery
1/4 cup chopped sweet pickles
Salt and pepper to taste
Mix beans and dressing; chill an
hour or more. Turn beans in the
dressing occasionally so they will
absorb the flavor.
Just before serving, add rest of
ingredients. Mix lightly. Season to
Serve in lettuce cups, garnished
with slices of hard-cooked egg.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with corn pudding and have
peach or berry cobbler for dessert.
Hot potato salad
3 tablespoons fat
1/4 cup finely chopped onions
1 tablespoon flour
1 *'/<2 teaspoons salt
1 tablespoon sugar
1/4 teaspoon dry mustard
3 tablespoons vinegar
3 tablespoons water
2 tablespoons sweet pickle relish
1/3 cup diced celery
2 tablespoons chopped green
21/2 cups diced cooked potatoes
Heat the fat and brown the onions
lightly in it. Mix flour, salt, sugar,
and mustard, and stir in. Add vine-
gar and water slowly, stirring con-
stantly, and cook until thick.
Mix pickle relish, celery, and green
pepper with potatoes. Add the hot
dressing and mix lightly but thor-
Turn into baking dish, cover, and
heat in oven at 350° F. (moderate)
about 20 minutes.
4 servings.

Potato salad
3 cups cubed cooked potatoes
1 tablespoon minced onion
1 cup thick dressing
1 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup chopped green pepper
1/2 cup finely cut celery
1/4 cup chopped pickles or
Mix lightly the potatoes, onion,
dressing, and salt; take care not to
break potatoes.
Chill until serving time.
Add rest of ingredients and mix
lightly. Add more dressing and salt
if needed.
Serve on lettuce, garnished with
tomato wedges and olives.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve for lunch or supper with
frankfurters on buns or cold sliced
ham. Add carrot sticks, radishes,
and pickled beets. Finish off with
fruit gelatin.
For variety
Omit}{ cup potatoes and carefully
mix in 2 hard-cooked eggs, coarsely
chopped. Garnish with slices of
hard-cooked egg.
Use pimiento and french dressing
instead of the green pepper and thick
Omit 1 cup potatoes and add 1 cup
chopped cooked ham or spiced meat,
such as bologna or canned lunch
Cooked salad dressing
3 tablespoons vinegar
1 egg or 2 egg yolks, beaten
1/3 cup milk
1 tablespoon table fat
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
Paprika, celery seed, if desired
Add vinegar to egg and beat.
Stir in rest of ingredients. Cook
over boiling water; stir constantly
until thickened. Makes about % cup.
Sour cream salad dressing
1/4 cup pineapple juice
11/2 teaspoons lemon juice
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon sugar
1/2 cup sour cream
Mix fruit juices, salt, and sugar.
Add cream and stir until smooth.
Makes about % cup.
Salad dressing variations
With mayonnaise,—Mix w i t h
whipped cream for fruit salads.
Add horseradish and mustard for
meat or fish salads.
Make russian dressing by adding
chili sauce, pickle relish.
With french dressing.—Add curry
powder and onion juice. Serve on
meat salads.
Mix with catsup and chopped
olives for green salads.
For fruit salad, add a few sprigs of
mint, crushed.

Fragrant, steaming soups or chowders like these can be features of the meal
at luncheon or supper. For they take heartiness from such ingredients as milk,
sea food, and dry beans or peas.
These recipes allow 4 servings of 1 cup each. The menu suggestions round
out the meal with other protein-rich foods.
Dry bean or pea soup
% cup dry beans or peas
11/2 quarts cold water
Ham bone
1 small onion, chopped
Few stalks celery and leaves
1 tablespoon (lour
Salt and pepper to taste
Cover beans or peas with half the
water. Soak overnight in a cool
place; or boil gently for 2 minutes
and let stand 1 hour.
Add rest of water, ham bone,
onion, and celery. Simmer until
beans or peas are tender.
Remove bone. Put soup through
a sieve or food press. Cut any meat
from bone into s'mall pieces. Add
to soup. Stir in flour mixed with a
little cold water. Cook soup until
thickened and hot. Season.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with crackers toasted with
cheese, cabbage and carrot slaw,
and prune whip.
Cream of tomato soup
/2 cups cooked or canned
tomatoes (No. 2 can)
,4 cup chopped onion
Vs teaspoon sugar, if desired
2 cups thin white sauce (p. 70)
Salt and pepper
Cook tomatoes, onion, and sugar
slowly 10 minutes. Put through a
sieve or food press.
Add tomato mixture slowly to
warm white sauce, stirring con-
stantly. Season to taste with salt
and pepper.
Heat the soup rapidly until just
hot enough for serving. Be careful
not to overheat.
Serve at once.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with peanut butter and green
pepper sandwiches, and a salad of
pears, pineapple, and dates. For
dessert have pumpkin pie.

Cream of pea soup
21/2 cups cooked or canned peas
and liquid (No. 2 can)
Slice of onion
2 cups thin white sauce (p. 70)
Salt and pepper to taste
Cook peas, liquid, and onion
slowly 10 minutes.
Put through a sieve or food press
and stir into the white sauce. Add
salt and pepper.
Heat just to boiling.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with stuffed tomato salad,
hot rolls or biscuits, and baked
Cream of mushroom soup
1/2 pound fresh mushrooms
2 to 3 tablespoons table fat
1/2 small onion, sliced
2 cups thin white sauce (p. 70)
Salt and pepper to taste
Wash and chop mushrooms and
cook a few minutes in the fat.
Heat onion slices a few minutes in
the white sauce, then remove.
Add mushrooms and seasonings to
the sauce. Heat just to boiling.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with celery and carrot
sticks, cottage cheese, and apple
brown betty.
Quick potato soup
11/2 cups cubed potatoes
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1 tablespoon fat
% cup boiling water
2 cups milk
% teaspoon salt
Cook potatoes, onion, and fat in
the water until potatoes are tender.
Add milk, salt, and pepper. Heat
until almost boiling.
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with crackers, deviled eggs,
relishes, and peach upside-down
Meat and vegetable soup
Meaty soup bone, cracked (beef
or veal)
2 quarts water
1/2 cup chopped onion
1 cup chopped celery and leaves
1 cup cooked or canned tomatoes
1/2 cup diced carrots
1/2 cup diced turnips
1 cup diced potatoes
1 teaspoon salt
Remove bone slivers and simmer
bone in water until meat falls from
it—about 3 hours.
Remove the bone, and add vege-
tables and salt. Cook slowly until

vegetables are tender but not
mushy—about 40 minutes.
Season with pepper and more salt
if needed.
Makes about 2 quarts and is
equally good reheated.
Menu suggestion
Serve with scalloped corn, lettuce
salad, and gingerbread.
For variety
With macaroni.—Omit turnips and
reduce potatoes to % cup; 15 minutes
before soup is removed from heat,
add % cup macaroni pieces. Finish
Oyster stew
1 pinf oysters
3 tablespoons table fat
1 quart milk
1 teaspoon salt
Look over the oysters and take out
any bits of shell. Melt the fat, add
the oysters and their liquid, and
cook until the edges of the oysters
begin to curl—about 3 minutes.
Add milk and salt, and heat just
to boiling. Sprinkle each serving
with paprika,
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with a tart vegetable and
cheese salad, with peaches and oat-
meal cookies for dessert.
Fish chowder
1 cup diced potatoes
1 cup boiling water
3 slices bacon, cut in small pieces
1 medium-sized onion, chopped
% pound fish fillets, cubed
1 cup milk
Salt and pepper to taste
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
Cook potatoes in water in covered
pam 10 to 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, fry the bacon until
some of the fat has cooked out. Add
the onion and cook until onion is soft
and bacon is lightly browned.
Add bacon, onion, fat, and fish to
potatoes. Cook slowly until fish and
potatoes are done—about 10 min-
Add milk, salt, and pepper. Heat
just to boiling. Sprinkle with pars-
4 servings.
Menu suggestion
Serve with tomato and cucumber
salad, and have hot mince pie for
For variety
Corn chowder.—Use 1 % cups cooked
or canned corn instead of the fish.
If you like a thickened chowder,
blend 1 tablespoon flour with a little
cold water and stir it in when adding
the corn. Stir occasionally during

Sauces, gravies
Plain dish turns party fare when graced with sauce that's tangy or mellow—
a savory gravy—or a gentle sweetening for dessert. In general, 2 to 4 table-
spoons of sauce is enough to allow for one serving. You will probably want to
be more generous with servings of gravy.
White sauce
Milk Flour
1 cup. 1 tablespoon.
Table fat
1 tablespoon... Cream soup, gravy,-
c r e a m e d a n d
scalloped v e g e -
tables, eggs, fish,
2 tablespoons.. Gravy; c r e a m e d
and s c a l l o p e d
vegetables, eggs,
fish, meat.
Thick.... 1 cup. 3 to 4 table- 2 to 3 table- Binder for croquettes;
spoons. spoons. souffles.
Medium. 1 cup. 2 tablespoons.
To MAKE.—Melt fat and blend in the flour to make a smooth mixture. Add
milk slowly and cook over very low heat, stirring constantly, until thickened.
Add salt to taste—about % teaspoon for each cup of milk used. Cook 3 to 5
minutes longer, stirring occasionally.
Milk gravy.—Make like thin or medium white sauce, using pan drippings for
Cheese sauce.—Add 1 cup finely grated cheese to 1 cup hot white sauce—thin
or medium. Stir until cheese is melted. Be careful not to overcook.
Egg sauce.—Stir 2 chopped hard-cooked eggs and 2 tablespoons lemon juice
into 1% cups hot white sauce—thin or medium.
Vanilla sauce.—Add % cup sugar and % teaspoon vanilla to 1 cup hot thin
white sauce. Stir until sugar is dissolved.

Gravy for meaf or poultry
To make good gravy, you need
drippings rich enough to flavor
added liquid which may be broth,
milk, or water.
Use fat and flour in equal amounts
to give the gravy a smooth texture.
One tablespoon of each to 1 cup of
liquid makes a thin gravy; 2 table-
spoons of each, a moderately thick
The surest way to make gravy that
is lump-free and does not separate
is to allow the fat to come to the top
of the drippings and skim it off.
For 2 cups of gravy, measure 2 to 4
tablespoons fat and an equal amount
Measure the liquid, too, and add
enough water, broth, or milk to
make 2 cups. Blend fat and flour in
the cooking pan and stir in the
measured liquid slowly.
Cook over very low heat, stirring
constantly until thickened. Cook a
few minutes longer, stirring occa-
sionally. Add salt and other desired
Some cooks may prefer this quick
method. Estimate the amount of fat
and liquid in the cooking pan.
(If drippings seem very fat, skim off
some of the fat.) Add enough liquid
to make the quantity of gravy you
want. Measure 1 to 2 tablespoons
flour for each cup of gravy. Blend
flour with a little cold water. Stir
slowly into the hot liquid and finish
gravy as above.
Tomato sauce
/2 cups fresh tomatoes cut in
pieces, or 2 cups cooked or
canned tomatoes
1/2 teaspoon sugar, if desired
A cup chopped onion
Small piece bay leaf
2 cloves
2 tablespoons melted fat
2 tablespoons flour
Salt and pepper to taste
Cook the tomatoes slowly with the
sugar, onion, bay leaf, and cloves—
20 minutes for fresh tomatoes, 10
minutes for cooked or canned. Put
through a sieve or food press.
Blend fat and flour and stir in the
tomato mixture.
Cook over low heat, stirring often,
until thickened. Season with salt
and pepper.
Makes 2 cups.
Onion sauce
/2 cup chopped or finely sliced
1 tablespoon table fat
1 tablespoon flour
1 cup milk
Salt and pepper to taste
Cook onion in fat until yellow.
Blend in the flour and stir in the milk
Cook over very low heat, stirring
constantly, until thickened. Season
with salt and pepper. Cook a few
minutes longer, stirring occasionally.
Makes 1 cup.

Tartar sauce
1/2 cup mayonnaise
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1 tablespoon chopped green
1 tablespoon chopped pickle
1 tablespoon minced parsley
1 teaspoon capers, if desired
11/2 teaspoons tarragon vinegar,
if desired
Combine all ingredients.
Serve the sauce with fish.
Makes about % cup.
Hollandaise sauce
1/2 cup table fat
4 egg yolks, well beaten
1/3 cup boiling water
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains cayenne if desired
Melt fat over hot water. Remove
from heat and cool.
Blend egg yolks into fat; add boil-
ing water slowly. Cook over boiling
water, stirring constantly until thick-
ened. Stir in lemon juice and sea-
sonings. Makes about % cup.
Honey and orange sauce
1 cup honey
A cup chopped orange peel
1/2 cup orange juice
Pinch of salt
Combine all ingredients. Let stand
over hot, not boiling, water about 30
minutes to blend flavors.
Serve on gingerbread, steamed
puddings, or ice cream.
Makes 1}{ cups.
Peanut butter-fruit sauce
/2 cup sugar
1/2 cup dark corn sirup
1/3 cup water
/2 teaspoon salt
1/1 cup peanut butter
A cup raisins or chopped candied
Mix the sugar, corn sirup, water,
and salt. Simmer 10 minutes; cool.
Stir this sirup slowly into the pea-
nut butter and raisins or candied
Serve on baked custard, ice cream,
or steamed puddings.
Makes about 1 cup.
Sour cream sauce
1/3 cup table fat
1 cup confectioner's sugar
1/1 teaspoon lemon juice
1/4 teaspoon vanilla
1/4 to 1/2 cup sour cream, plain or
Cream the fat. Add the sugar
slowly and beat well.
Add lemon juice and vanilla.
Beat in enough sour cream to make
the sauce light and fluffy.
Serve on fruit brown betty, hot
baked apples or dumplings, steamed
or baked puddings.
Makes about 1 cup.

Breads and
Hot breads
Just to name them whets family appetites—hot, feathery rolls, biscuits and
muffins that call for the best jams and jellies in the house, nut bread, and creamy
spoon bread—good on either side of the Mason-Dixon line. There are also
pop-overs, waffles, and, almost best of all, griddlecakes.
In this section, baking powder measurements are given for the double-acting
type. Use half again as much of phosphate, and twice as much of tartrate
baking powder.
Quick nut loaf
cups sifted (lour
2 tablespoons sugar
3 teaspoons baking powder
/2 teaspoon salt
/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1 cup milk
2 eggs, beaten
4 tablespoons melted table (at
1 cup chopped nuts
Sift together flour, sugar, baking
powder, salt, and cinnamon.
Add milk to eggs.
Stir liquids into dry ingredients
and mix just until smooth.
Stir in the melted fat and nuts.
Pour into a greased loaf pan. Let
stand 20 minutes.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
about 1 hour.
Raisin loaf. — Use 1 % cups chopped
raisins instead of nuts.
Spoon bread
1/2 cup corn meal
1 cup cold water
/2 teaspoon salt
/2 cup milk
1 egg, beaten
1 tablespoon melted (at
Mix corn meal with the water, add
the salt. Boil 5 minutes, stirring
Stir the milk into the hot corn
meal mixture, then stir in the egg.
Add the fat last.
Pour the batter into a hot greased
baking dish or pan.
Bake at 400° F. (hot oven) about
40 minutes, or until firm and well
browned over the top.
Serve from the baking dish.
4 servings.
Cheese spoon bread.—Add % cup
grated cheese to the batter after the
fat has been added.

Corn bread
2 cups corn meal
1/4 teaspoon soda
2 teaspoons baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
2 eggs, beaten
2 cups sour milk
2 tablespoons melted rat
Sift together dry ingredients. Add
eggs to milk and stir into dry ingre-
dients. Add melted fat.
Pour into greased pan about 8
inches square and bake at 425° F.
(hot oven) 20 to 30 minutes.
8 servings.
2 cups sifted flour
2 teaspoons baking powd
% teaspoon salt
/3 cup fat
About %. cup milk
Sift flour, baking powder, and salt
together. Cut or rub in fat until
well blended.
Slowly mix in milk, using just
enough to make dough that is soft
but not sticky.
Turn dough onto a floured board
and knead a few strokes. Roll or pat
to %-inch thickness. Cut with a
biscuit cutter or cut into squares
with a knife.
Place on a baking sheet and bake
at 450° F. (very hot oven) about 15
Makes about sixteen 2-inch bis-
Cheese biscuits.—Add 1 cup grated
cheese to dry ingredients.
Peanut butter biscuits.—Use 3 table-
spoons fat and 4 tablespoons peanut
butter instead of % cup fat.
Rich biscuit dough.—Increase the fat
to % cup, and use for shortcake or
topping for meat pie.
2 cups sifted flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons sugar
1 egg, beaten
1 cup milk
"14 cup fat, melted
Sift together flour, baking powder,
salt, and sugar.
Combine egg, milk, and fat. Add
to the dry ingredients all at once,
stirring only enough to moisten.
Fill greased muffin pans two-thirds
Bake at 400° F. (hot oven) about
20 minutes.
Makes about 12 medium-sized
Oatmeal muffins.—Use 1 cup quick-
cooking oats in place of 1 cup of the
white flour.
Blueberry or cranberrv muffins.—Use 1
cup uncooked berries. Reduce milk
to % cup and increase sugar to }{ cup.
Mix berries with dry ingredients.
Peanut butter or cheese muffins.—Use
}{ cup peanut butter or % cup grated
cheese and reduce fat to 2 table-

Yeast rolls
1 cake compressed yeast
"P lukewarm water
% cup sugar
cup fat
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup scalded milk
1 egg, beaten
About 4 cups sifted flour
Soften yeast in water. Add }{
teaspoon sugar.
Add fat, rest of sugar, and salt to
hot milk. Stir until sugar is dis-
Cool, then add egg. Stir in sof-
tened yeast.
Stir flour into liquid ingredients
until well mixed. Turn dough out
onto lightly floured board.
Knead quickly until smooth and
elastic. Form into smooth ball.
Place ball of dough in greased
bowl and turn over once or twice to
grease the surface.
Cover and let rise in warm place
(about 85° F.) until double in bulk—
about 1 hour.
Turn out onto board, knead well
again, and shape as desired. Place
in a greased pan or on a baking
sheet. Let rise and bake as for
Parker House rolls below.
Using the electric mixer
Combine all ingredients except
flour according to directions given
Mix flour into liquid ingredients
at slow speed, scraping dough from
beater occasionally. Continue beat-
ing until dough has pulled cleanly
away from sides of bowl several
times. Turn dough onto board and
form into smooth ball without knead-
ing. Proceed with the rising and
Parker House rolls.—Roll the dough
YI inch thick and cut in 2-inch
rounds. Brush tops lightly with soft
table fat, crease through center.
Fold over and press down top.
Brush with fat if you like a soft crust.
Place rolls on greased baking sheet
about Yz inch apart, or farther apart
if you want them to be crusty on all
Cover with waxed paper or a cloth
and let rise in a warm place until
double in bulk.
Bake at 400° F. (hot oven) 15 to 20
Makes 20 to 25 rolls.
Nut rolls.—Roll the dough % inch
thick in rectangular shape. Spread
with soft table fat, sprinkle thickly
with brown sugar, and chopped
nuts—pecans, walnuts, peanuts, or
other nuts.
Roll like jelly roll. To seal the
roll, moisten the long edge and press
down. Cut crosswise in 1-inch slices.
Grease muffin pans and in each one
put}{teaspoon table fat, 2 teaspoons
brown sugar, and a few nut meats.
Place a slice of dough in each pan,
press down. Cover and let rise until
double in bulk.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
about 20 minutes. Turn out of pan
at once.
Makes 16 to 20 rolls.

/2 cups sifted (lour
/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon sugar
2 eggs, separated
1 cup milk
2 tablespoons melted (at
Sift dry ingredients together. Beat
the egg yolks and whites separately.
Combine egg yolks, milk, and fat.
Mix with dry ingredients, stirring
only until the batter is smooth.
Fold in beaten egg whites. Bake
in a hot waffle baker.
Makes 4 waffles.
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup milk
1 tablespoon melted (at
1 cup sifted (lour
% teaspoon salt
Grease heavy baking cups (glass,
earthenware, iron, or enamel); heat
in oven.
Combine eggs, milk, and fat. Add
flour and salt and beat with egg
beater until well blended.
Fill hot cups half full. Bake at
once at 450° F. (very hot oven) 30
minutes. Reduce heat to 350° F.
(moderate oven) and bake 15 min-
utes longer.
Makes 8 to 12 pop-overs.
/2 cups sifted (lour
/2 teaspoons baking powder
% teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon sugar
1 egg, beaten
1 cup milk
2 tablespoons melted (at
Sift dry ingredients together.
Combine the egg, milk, and fat.
Add gradually to the dry ingredients;
stir only until batter is smooth.
Drop by spoonfuls onto a hot
greased griddle. Cook slowly until
the surface is covered with bubbles,
turn, and cook until the bottom is
well browned.
Makes about 18 medium-sized
Many of these sandwiches and fillings are the good sturdy kind—made with
meat, fish, cheese, or peanut butter.
If sandwiches are "worth their salt," the fillings are generous, have a bit of,
moistness without being wet, and are spread clear to the edge of the bread.
For more interesting sandwiches use different kinds of bread—even in the
same sandwich.
Leave crust on the bread so there'll be no waste and the sandwich will stay
moist longer.

Hot fish sandwiches
1 tablespoon (at
/2 tablespoons minced green
1 tablespoon minced onion
2 eggs, slightly beaten
% cup milk
/2 teaspoon salt
%. cup flaked canned or cooked
Toasted rolls
Heat the fat and cook the green
pepper and onion in it until they are
Combine remaining ingredients
and add to vegetables. Cook over
low heat or boiling water, stirring
constantly, until thick and creamy.
Serve hot on toasted rolls.
4 servings.
Hot meat salad sandwiches
1 cup ground cooked meat
1 tablespoon chopped pickle
1 tablespoon chopped onion
3 tablespoons salad dressing
Salt and pepper to taste
4 slices of bread
Softened table fat
Mix meat, pickle, onion, and salad
dressing. Add salt and pepper.
Toast bread on one side. Spread
untoasted side with table fat and
salad mixture.
Put sandwiches on broiler rack and
broil until meat mixture bubbles and
4 servings.
French-toasted sandwiches
Many meat, cheese, and peanut
butter sandwiches are good french-
Dip sandwiches in egg-milk mix-
ture (1 egg beaten with 2 tablespoons
of milk is enough for 4 sandwiches).
Do not soak the bread.
Brown slowly on both sides in a
little hot fat.
Sandwich fillings
Sliced meat.—Corned beef with
horseradish; veal with apple slices
and salad dressing; chicken or tur-
key with sliced tomato or cucumber
and salad dressing; a slice of ham
with a slice of cheese.
Chopped or grated vegetables.—Mix
carrots, celery, cabbage, or peppers
with chopped dried fruits, nuts, or
hard-cooked eggs. Moisten with
salad dressing. Cottage or cream
cheese is also good with chopped
Peanut butter.—Mix with chopped
dates and salad dressing; drained
crushed pineapple; honey; or grated
carrots and chopped raisins. To use
peanut butter with sweet spreads,
spread peanut butter on one slice of
bread, jelly, jam, honey, or apple
butter on the other.
Baked bean.—Mash and mix with
mayonnaise or catsup, and one or
more of these: Minced onion,
chopped celery, pickle relish, crisp
bacon bits. Add a slice of ham, if
you like.

Pies, pastries, puddings . . . custards, cookies, cobblers . . . cakes that are
upside-down and right-side up ... a frothy fruit whip and an apple betty . . .
these goodies need no further recommendation.
These pies and cakes are for standard-sized pans. Most of the other recipes
provide four servings of about % cup each.
In this section, baking powder measurements are given for the double-acting
type. Use half again as much of phosphate, and twice as much of tartrate
baking powder.
Cake recipes given here are not suitable for high altitudes.
Two-crust fruit pie
Make pastry by recipe on page 80.
Roll a little more than half of dough
to thin round sheet }{ inch larger
than pan.
Settle sheet into pan without
stretching. Pat in place to force out
air underneath; trim close to rim.
Fill crust heaping full with raw
fruit such as berries or pitted cherries
or thinly sliced apples or peaches.
Mix % to 1 cup sugar with 1 to 2
tablespoons flour and a pinch of salt.
If desired add up to 1 teaspoon
mixed spices. Sprinkle this mixture
over fruit, dot with table fat. For
mild fruits add about 1 tablespoon
lemon juice.
Roll rest of dough to thin round
sheet. Make cuts to let out steam
during baking.
Moisten rim of lower crust. Place
top crust over fruit. Press down
firmly at edge and tsim close to rim
Bake (see Baking Guide, p. 80).
With cooked or canned fruits.—Drain
fruit and fill crust just full. Mix
juice with sugar, flour, salt, and
spices. Cook juice mixture until
slightly thickened; pour over fruit
and add top crust.
Pecan pie
3 eggs, beaten
/2 cup sugar
1 cup dark corn sirup
/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon vanilla
% cup melted table fat
1 cup pecan meats
Unbaked 9-inch pastry shell
Mix eggs, sugar, sirup, salt, vanilla,
Spread nuts in bottom of shell,
pour in filling.
Bake (see Baking Guide, p. 80).

Cream pie
/2 cup sugar
4 tablespoons Flour
A teaspoon salt
2 cups milk
2 egg yolks, slightly beaten
2 tablespoons table (at
1 teaspoon vanilla
9-inch baked pastry shell
graham cracker shell
Mix dry ingredients with a little of
the milk. Add rest of milk. Cook
over boiling water, stirring until
thick. Cover and cook 15 minutes
longer, stirring occasionally.
Add a little of the hot mixture to
egg yolks. Pour back and cook a few
minutes longer. Add table fat and
Pour filling into shell, cool slightly,
and cover with meringue (see recipe
Bake at 325° F. (slow oven) until
meringue is brown and firm.
2 egg whites
% teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons sugar
Beat egg whites with salt until stiff.
Beat in sugar slowly until smooth and
For variety
- Banana cream pie.—Slice 2 bananas
into the pie shell before adding the
Coconut cream pie.—Add % cup
shredded coconut to cream filling;
turn into a baked pie shell. Top
with meringue and sprinkle with
coconut. Bake as for cream pie.
Chocolate cream pie.—Make filling as
for cream pie, adding }£ cup milk,
% cup sugar, and 2}{ squares choco-
late. Melt chocolate in milk. Top
with meringue and bake, or serve
plain or with whipped cream.
Graham cracker shell
15 graham crackers
/3 cup melted table (at
/3 cup sugar
/4 teaspoon each cinnamon,
cloves, nutmeg
Roll crackers fine. Mix with other
Turn into piepan and pat into firm
smooth shell.
Chill until firm.
Makes one 9-inch pie shell.
Sour cream pie
1 cup sugar
Vs teaspoon cinnamon
/2 teaspoon cloves
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup seedless raisins
1 cup sour cream
2 tablespoons vinegar
Baked 9-inch pastry shell
Mix all ingredients, stirring until
sugar is dissolved.
Pour mixture into shell and bake
(see Baking Guide, p. 80).

Lemon or lime chiffon pie
1 tablespoon gelatin
1/1 cup cold water
3 eggs, separated
% cup sugar
/2 cup unstrained lemon or lime
1/2 teaspoon grated lemon or lime
% teaspoon salt
Few drops green coloring (for
lime pie)
Baked 9-inch pastry shell or
graham cracker shell (p. 79)
Sprinkle gelatin on water and soak
a few minutes.
Beat egg yolks slightly, add half
the sugar and the lemon or lime
juice and rind.
Cook over boiling water, stirring
constantly until thick.
Add gelatin to hot mixture; stir
until dissolved. Add coloring for
lime pie. Cool until thick but not
Add salt to egg whites and beat
until stiff. Add rest of sugar slowly,
beating constantly. Blend with the
chilled gelatin mixture.
Pour into a shell and chill until
For variety
Pumpkin chiffon pie.—Replace fruit
juice and rind with % cup milk and
% teaspoon each of ginger, cinnamon,
and nutmeg.
Fold \\}{ cups cooked or canned
pumpkin into gelatin mixture with
beaten egg whites.
2% cups (lour
11/2 teaspoons salt
cup (at
4 to 6 tablespoons cold water
Sift flour with salt. Gut in fat
until mixture is granular.
Sprinkle water over mixture,
blending lightly with fork. Add
water sparingly until dough clings
together but is not wet. Let stand
5 minutes before rolling.
Makes two 9-inch crusts.
Baked pastry shells
Roll pastry thin; place in piepan
or muffin pans. Trim % to % inch
from edge. Double edge of pastry
over and pinch with fingers to make
an upright rim. Or shape pastry to
outside of pans and trim close.
Prick bottom and sides of pastry
well with a fork to keep crust flat.
Bake (see Baking Guide).
Baking guide
Pie or tart shells.
baked shell.
unbaked shell.
Fruit, two-crust..
Minutes Oven
10-12 425° F.
25-30 350° F.
15 450° F.
(very hot)
Continue Reduce to
25-30 350° F.
30-50 425° F.

White layer cake
cup fat
/2 teaspoon vanilla
1/2 teaspoon almond extract
1 cup sugar
2 cups sifted cake flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
/2 teaspoon salt
% cup milk
3 egg whites
Cream fat, flavorings, and half of
the sugar until very light and fluffy.
Sift together flour, baking powder,
and salt.
Add to creamed mixture in three
portions alternately with milk in
two portions.
Beat egg whites until stiff and add
the rest of the sugar slowly, beating
constantly until glossy. Fold into
the batter.
Turn batter into two greased 9-inch
round layer pans.
Bake at 375° F. (moderate oven)
until cake draws away from pan and
top is springy to touch—about 25
For variety
For party cakes (petit fours) cut
white cake in cubes or triangles.
Make confectioner's sugar frosting
(p. 83), using enough liquid so that
it will pour. Color frosting, if you
like, and pour over cakes, covering
tops and sides. The cakes may be
sprinkled with coconut or chopped
nuts while frosting is still soft.
Chocolate layer cake
cup fat
1 teaspoon vanilla
/3 cups sugar
3 squares (3 ounces) chocolate,
2 eggs, separated
2 cups sifted cake flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
Cream fat, vanilla, and half of the
sugar together until light and fluffy.
Blend in chocolate and add egg yolks.
Sift together flour, baking powder,
and salt.
Add to creamed mixture in three
portions alternately with milk in two
Beat egg whites stiff, and add the
rest of the sugar slowly, beating
constantly until glossy. Fold into
the batter.
Turn batter into two greased 9-
inch round layer pans.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
30 to 35 minutes or until cake pulls
away from pan and top is springy to
For variety
Add }{ cup chopped nut meats to
the batter just before pouring into
Cupcakes.—Pour batter into greased
muffin pans, filling them two-
thirds full. Bake at 375° F. (moder-
ate oven) 20 minutes, or until top
is springy to touch.
Makes about 30 small cupcakes.

Fruit cake
1 pound prunes
1 pound seedless raisins
1/2 pound candied citron
A pound nut meats (about 1
cup (at
1 cup brown sugar, (irmly packed
4 eggs
1 tablespoon milk
2 cups sifted (lour
1 teaspoon mace
1 teaspoon cinnamon
!/2 teaspoon soda
Soak prunes if they seem dry; pit
and chop. Soak raisins 20 minutes
in hot water, drain. Cut citron in
strips and chop nuts. Mix all to-
Cream fat and sugar together.
Beat in eggs and add milk.
Sift together flour, spices, and soda
and stir into fruits and nuts. Add
to creamed mixture.
Grease and flour five small loaf
pans. Line bottoms with brown
paper; grease the paper.
Pour batter into pans. Bake at
250° F. (very slow oven) 3% hours.
Cool slightly, remove from pans,
and strip off paper. Cool thoroughly
and wrap in waxed paper. Store 2
weeks in a cool place before using.
Makes about 5 pounds of cake.
For variety
Use dates instead of raisins. Dates
need not be soaked.
Upside-down cake
Fruit mixture
1 to 2 cups fruit
1/2 cup brown sugar
2 tablespoons table (at
1 tablespoon (ruit juice or water
Canned or cooked dried fruit—
pineapple, apricots, cherries, peaches,
prunes—may be used. Cut whole
fruit in half, remove pits. Raw
apples or peaches, thinly sliced, are
also good.
Cook sugar, fat, and juice or water
in fry pan over moderate heat to
form thick sirup.
Arrange fruit and sirup in a greased
8- or 9-inch shallow pan. Or use
fry pan if it can be put into oven.
Cake batter
1/3 cup fat
/2 cup sugar
1 teaspoon vanilla
1 egg, beaten
11/2 cups sifted cake flour
% teaspoon salt
11/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup milk
Cream fat, sugar, and vanilla to-
gether, then blend in egg.
Sift together flour, salt, and baking
powder. Add to creamed mixture
in three portions alternately with
milk in two portions.
Pour batter over fruit and sirup.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven) 45
minutes. Cool slightly and turn out

Spiced prune cake
cup fat
1 cup sugar
2 eggs, well beaten
1% cups finely chopped cooked
2 cups sifted flour
/2 teaspoons soda
1 teaspoon cinnamon
% teaspoon cloves
% teaspoon salt
/2 cup sour milk
Cream fat and add sugar. Cream
until fluffy. Add eggs and beat well.
Blend in prunes.
Sift together flour, soda, spices, and
salt. Add to creamed mixture in
three portions alternately with the
sour milk in two portions.
Turn into a greased shallow pan
about 12 by 8 inches.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
35 to 40 minutes.
"Seven minute" frosting
2 egg whites
/2 cups sugar
Few grains salt
1 teaspoon light corn sirup
/3 cup water
1 teaspoon vanilla
Mix all ingredients except the va-
nilla. Beat over boiling water until
mixture stands in soft peaks—7 to 10
Remove from heat, add vanilla.
Beat until very thick.
Enough for two 9-inch layers.
Confectioner's sugar frosting
For a two-layer cake, 9-inch size,
mix 2 cups confectioner's sugar, 4
tablespoons table fat, and enough
cream, orange juice, or strong coffee
to spread well. Add flavoring—va-
nilla, grated orange rind, melted
chocolate, or spices.
Lemon filling
1 cup sugar
/2 tablespoons flour
Vs teaspoon salt
4 tablespoons lemon juice
Grated rind of 1 lemon
2 eggs, beaten
1 tablespoon table fat
Mix sugar, flour, salt, and lemon
juice and rind.
Cook over low heat or boiling
water, stirring until thickened. Cook
10 minutes more; stir often.
Stir hot mixture slowly into eggs;
return to pan. Add fat. Cook 2
minutes, stirring. Cool.
Cream cheese filling
3 ounces cream cheese
(6 tablespoons)
Cream or milk
/2 cup chopped dates
/2 cup chopped nuts
% teaspoon salt
Mash cheese and add enough
cream to make soft mixture. Add
other ingredients; mix thoroughly.
Makes enough for 9-inch cake.

/2 cups sifted flour
A teaspoon soda
1 teaspoon baking powder
A cup sugar
A teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon ginger
1 teaspoon cinnamon
A teaspoon ground cloves
/2 cup milk
1 egg, beaten
/2 cup molasses
A cup melted fat
Sift together dry ingredients. Add
milk to beaten egg. Pour into dry
ingredients and stir until smooth.
Stir in molasses and fat.
Pour batter into greased shallow
pan (about 8 inches square).
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
30 to 40 minutes.
Dried-fruit bars
1 cup sifted flour
% teaspoon baking powder
/2 teaspoon salt
% cup melted table fat
1 cup sugar
2 eggs, well beaten
1 cup chopped nuts
1 cup dried fruit, sliced or
chopped fine (dates, apricots,
figs, prunes, or
/3 cup raisins
with % cup chopped evapo-
rated apples)
Sift together flour, baking powder,
and salt.
Mix in other ingredients in order
given, using one of the dried fruits.
Line shallow pan (about 13 by 9
inches) with waxed paper, and
spread batter in it.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
25 to 30 minutes.
Several minutes after removing
from oven, cut into bars about 1 by
3 inches. Turn out on rack and peel
off paper. When firm enough to
hold shape, roll warm bars in con-
fectioner's sugar.
Makes about 40 bars.
Peanut butter cookies
cup fat
/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup peanut butter
1 cup granulated sugar
1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed
2 eggs, well beaten
1 tablespoon milk
2 cups sifted flour
/2 teaspoon soda
Combine fat, salt, and peanut
butter, and mix well.
Gradually add granulated sugar
and brown sugar. Cream thor-
oughly after each addition.
Add eggs and milk, mixing well.
Sift together the flour and soda.
Blend with first mixture.
Drop the dough by teaspoonfuls
onto greased baking sheets. Or roll
the dough into balls % to 1 inch in
diameter. Place on baking sheets,
press lightly with a fork to flatten.
Bake at 325° F. (slow oven) 15 to
20 minutes.
Makes 10 to 12 dozen cookies.

Oatmeal cookies
1/z cup sifted Hour
1/3 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon baking powder
% teaspoon cinnamon
/2 cups quick-cooking rolled
/2 cup raisins
1 egg, slightly beaten
1/Z cup milk
% teaspoon flavoring
4 tablespoons fat, melted
Sift together flour, sugar, salt, baking
powder, cinnamon. Mix in oats and
Combine egg, milk, flavoring, and
fat, and add to first mixture. Stir
only until ingredients are moistened.
Drop dough by teaspoonfuls onto
greased baking sheets.
Bake at 375° F. (moderate oven)
about 20 minutes.
Makes about 3 dozen cookies.
2 squares (2 ounces) unsweetened
cup fat
1 cup sugar
2 eggs, slightly beaten
% cup sifted flour
/2 teaspoon baking powder
/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup chopped nut meats
1 teaspoon vanilla
Melt chocolate and fat together
over hot water. Cool slightly.
Add sugar and the chocolate mix-
ture to eggs and beat.
Sift together the flour, baking
powder, and salt. Add to the first
mixture. Stir in the nut meats and
Pour the batter into a greased 8-
inch square pan. Bake at 350° F.
(moderate oven) about 30 minutes.
Cool in the pan and cut into squares.
Makes about 2 dozen brownies.
Molasses snaps
cup fat
% cup sugar
1/2 cup smoothly beaten cooked
1/4 cup molasses
1 cup sifted flour
1/2 teaspoon soda
3/4 teaspoon ginger
3/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon salt
Cream together fat and sugar.
Add potatoes and continue cream-
ing. Mix in molasses.
Sift together the flour, soda, spices,
and salt. Stir into the first mixture.
Drop the batter by tablespoonfuls
onto greased baking sheets. Flatten
to a thickness of % inch, using a
greased flat-bottomed glass.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
until the cookies are lightly
browned—about 15 minutes.
Remove from the baking sheet and
Makes about 30 cookies.

Fruit whip
/3 cup fruit pulp
2 egg whites
% teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons sugar
1 tablespoon lemon juice
For the fruit pulp, mash or put
through a sieve cooked apricots,
prunes, peaches, or apples. Or use
grated raw apples.
Beat egg whites with salt until
stiff. Add sugar gradually, beating
constantly until glossy.
Fold in fruit pulp and lemon juice.
Chill. 4 servings.
Orange bavarian cream
1 tablespoon gelatin
% cup cold water
% cup unstrained orange juice
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1/2 teaspoon grated orange rind
/3 cup sugar
% teaspoon salt
1 egg white
/2 cup cream, whipped
Sprinkle gelatin on water; soak a
few minutes.
Heat fruit juices and rind with half
of the sugar.
Dissolve gelatin in hot juice. Chill
until partly set.
Add salt to egg white and beat
until stiff. Add rest of sugar slowly,
beating until glossy.
Fold egg white mixture and cream
into gelatin mixture. Pour into
mold; chill until firm. 4 servings.
Apple brown betfy
/3 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
% teaspoon salt
2 cups fine, dry crumbs
4 tart apples, pared and diced
3 tablespoons melted table (at
Mix sugar, cinnamon, salt. Put
layer of crumbs in greased baking
dish. Cover with layer of apples.
Sprinkle with sugar mixture.
Continue until all ingredients are
used. Have layer of crumbs on top.
Pour melted fat over crumbs. Cover
Bake at 375° F. (moderate oven)
40 minutes. Remove cover the last
10 minutes to brown the top.
4 servings.
Bread or rice pudding
2 cups milk
11/2 cups soft bread crumbs,
or 1 cup cooked rice
1 tablespoon table fat
A cup sugar (increase to 1/3 cup
when using rice)
A teaspoon salt
1/3 cup raisins or nuts
2 eggs, beaten
Heat milk; add bread crumbs or
rice, and fat.
Add sugar, salt, and raisins or nuts
to eggs, then slowly stir in the hot
milk mixture.
Pour into greased baking dish, set
in pan of hot water.
Bake at 350° F. (moderate oven)
1 hour, or until set. 4 servings.

Frozen mint pudding
/2 teaspoons gelatin
2 tablespoons water
1/2 cup crushed white pepper-
mint candy (2 ounces)
% cup milk
2 eggs, separated
6 drops green coloring
A teaspoon salt
6 tablespoons sugar
1 cup heavy cream
12 plain chocolate cookies,
crushed (% cup)
Sprinkle gelatin on the water and
soak a few minutes.
Dissolve the candy in the milk over
boiling water.
Beat the egg yolks well. Pour a
little of the hot liquid into them.
Add to the rest of the hot mixture,
and cook until thick, stirring con-
stantly. Stir in the coloring.
Add gelatin to the cooked mixture
and stir until dissolved.
Cool until thick but not set.
Add salt to the egg whites and beat
until stiff but not dry. Gradually
add the sugar, beating constantly.
Combine the beaten egg whites
and the gelatin mixture.
Whip the cream and fold it in.
Put half the crumbs into two freez-
ing trays. Pour in the prepared
mixture, and cover with the rest of
the crumbs.
Freeze without stirring, at the
coldest refrigerator temperature, 3 to
4 hours.
8 servings.
Baked custard
% cup sugar
% teaspoon salt
3 eggs, beaten
2 cups hot milk
1 teaspoon vanilla
Combine sugar, salt, and eggs.
Add milk slowly; add vanilla.
Pour into custard cups, and set in
a pan of hot water.
Bake at 325° F. (slow oven) until
the custard is set—30 to 40 minutes.
4 servings.
Cherry cobbler
11/2 cups canned sour cherries
2/3 cup cherry juice
/3 to
/2 cup sugar
1 tablespoon cornstarch
Pinch of salt
Table fat
Biscuit dough (one-half recipe,
Mix all ingredients except the
dough. Cook over low heat, stirring
constantly, until thickened.
Turn into a baking pan. Cover
with rolled dough, slashed in several
places to let steam escape, or cover
with rounds of dough.
Bake at 425° F. (hot oven) until
browned—about 15 minutes.
4 servings.
For variety
Use raw peaches, cherries, or ber-
ries, cooked a few minutes with a
little water.

Ways to use left-overs
If it's good food, don't throw it away. Little left-overs, or big ones, fit into
many dishes. A switch in recipes here or a novel dessert there—and your
left-overs are put to work in interesting ways. Egg yolks can substitute for
whole eggs, for example. If bread is a bit dry, then it's just right for french
toast. Other left-overs have a way of adding food value or a fresh new
touch—such as fruit in muffins or vegetables in omelet.
Listed below are some of the dishes in which left-overs may be used.
£99 yolks, in
CornstarcK pudding
Custard or sauce
Pie Filling
Salad dressing
Scrambled eggs
ESS whiles, in
Fruit whip
Hard-cooked ess or yolk, in
Casserole dishes
Sour milk, in
Cakes, cookies
Quick breads
Sour cream, in
Cakes, cookies
Dessert sauce
Meat stews
Pie filling
Salad dressing
Sauce for vegetables
Cooked meats, poultry, fish, in
Casserole dishes
Meat patties
Meat pies
Stuffed vegetables
Cooked potatoes, in
Fried or creamed potatoes
Meat-pie crust
Potatoes in cheese sauce
Stew or chowder

Cooked snap beans/
lima beans, corn, peas,
carrots, in
Meat and vegetable pie
Stuffed peppers
Stuffed tomatoes
Vegetables in cheese sauce
Cooked leafy vegetables,
chopped, in
Creamed vegetables
Meat loaf
Meat patties
Cooked or canned fruits, in
Fruit cup
Fruit sauces
Jellied fruit
Quick breads
Upside-down cake
Yeast breads
Cooked wheat, oat,
or corn cereals, in
Fried cereal
Meat loaf or patties
Sweet puddings
Cooked rice, noodles,
macaroni, spaghetti, in
Meat or cheese loaf
Slices, for
French toast
Dry crumbs, in
Brown betty
Fried chops
Soft crumbs, in
Meat loaf
Cake or cookies, in
Brown betty
Ice-box cake
Toasted, with sweet topping,
for dessert

Cooking terms
To moisten food while cooking by pouring over it melted fat,
drippings, or other liquid.
To cook in water, or liquid mostly water, at boiling tempera-
ture (212° F. at sea level). Bubbles rise continually and
break on the surface.
Braise or pof-
To brown in fat, then cook in covered pan, with or without
added liquid, on top of stove or in oven. Larger pieces of
meat cooked by braising are called pot roasts.
To cook uncovered by direct heat on a rack placed under
the source of heat or over an open fire.
Pan-broil.—-To cook in lightly greased or ungreased heavy
pan on top of stove. Fat is poured off as it accumulates so
food does not fry.
To mash or mix one or more foods together until soft and
To braise individual serving pieces of meat, poultry, or game
in a little liquid—water, broth, or sauce.
To cook in fat without water or cover.
Pan-fry or saute.—To cook in a small amount of fat (a few
tablespoons, up to /£ inch) in fry pan.
Deep-fry or french-fry.—To cook in a deep kettle, in enough
fat to cover or float food.
Same as broil.
To press, stretch, and fold dough or similar mixture to make
it smooth. During kneading, bread dough becomes elastic,
fondant becomes satiny.
To let foods stand in a liquid (usually mixture of oil with
vinegar or lemon juice) to add flavor or make more tender.

To boil until partly cooked.
See braise.
To bake in hot air (usually oven) without water or cover.
To heat liquid to just below the boiling point.
To cook in liquid just below the boiling point, at temperatures
of 185° to 210° F. Bubbles form slowly and break belowthe
To cook food in steam, with or without pressure. Food is
steamed in a covered container, on a rack or in a perforated
pan over boiling water.
To boil or simmer in a small amount of liquid. Meats are
stewed at simmering temperature. .

One ingredient for another
For these
1 whole egg, for thick-
ening or baking
1 cup butter or mar-
garine for shorten-
1 s q u a r e (ounce)
1 teaspoon double-
a c t i n g b a k i n g
Sweet milk and bak-
ing powder, for bak-
1 cup sour milk, for
1 cup whole milk
1 cup skim milk
1 tablespoon flour, for
1 cup cake flour, for
1 c u p a l l - p u r -
pose flour, for bak-
ing breads
You may use these
2 egg yolks. Or 2 tablespoons dried whole egg plus
2}£ tablespoons water.
% cup lard, or rendered fat, with % teaspoon salt.
Or 1 cup hydrogenated fat (cooking fat sold under
brand name) with % teaspoon salt.
3 or 4 tablespoons cocoa plus % tablespoon fat.
}i teaspoons phosphate baking powder. Or 2
teaspoons tartrate baking powder.
Equal amount of sour milk plus }{ teaspoon soda
per cup. (Each half teaspoon soda with 1 cup sour
milk takes the place of 2 teaspoons baking powder
and 1 cup sweet milk.)
1 cup sweet milk mixed with one of the following:
1 tablespoon vinegar. Or 1 tablespoon lemon juice.
Or 1 % teaspoons cream of tartar.
2 cup evaporated milk plus }{ cup water.
Or 4 tablespoons dry whole milk plus 1 cup water.
Or 4 tablespoons nonfat dry milk plus 2 teaspoons
table fat and 1 cup water.
4 tablespoons nonfat dry milk plus 1 cup water.
z tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch,
or arrowroot starch. Or 1 tablespoon granulated
% cup all-purpose flour.
Up to }£ cup bran, whole-wheat flour, or corn
meal plus enough all-purpose flour to fill cup.

Measures and temperatures
Baking powder, cornstarch, cream of
tartar, spices.—Stir to loosen. Fill
spoon to overflowing, level with
spatula or straight knife.
Common food measures
Measuring foods
Part of cup.—Use tablespoons or the
smaller measuring cups—%, %, %
for greater accuracy.
Brown sugar.—Pack firmly into cup
or spoon.
3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon
boha fats.—When tat comes in 1-
pound rectangular form, 1 cup or
tablespoons 1 fluid ounce
fraction can be cut from pound, 4 tablespoons
y4 cup
which measures about 2 cups. , . a/
0 tablespoons •% cup
Or measure cupful by packing 8 tablespoons
/2 cup
firmly into cup and leveling off top , .
with spatula or straight knife.
tablespoons 1 cup
1 cup 8 fluid ounces
Water method may be used for
part of cup. To measure % cup fat,
2 CU
S 1
for instance, put }(, cup cold water in 2 pints 1 quart
1-cup measure. Add fat, pushing
under water until water level stands
at 1-cup mark. Pour out water and
remove fat
Very slow 250° and 275° F.
White flour.—Sift once. Lift lightly Slow 300° and 325° F.
into cup. Level off top with spatula o , _,
or straight knife. Moderate 350 and 375 F.
Hot 400° and 425° F.
Other flours, fine meals, fine crumbs,
dried eggs, dry milks.—Stir instead of Very hot 450 and 475 F.
sifting. Measure like flour. Extremely hot 500° and 525° F.

Index to recipes
brown betty 86
salad 65
Asparagus and spaghetti, scalloped... 57
Boston baked 52
kidney, salad 65
lima, in tomato sauce 53
sandwich 77
sausages 53
snap, Spanish 58
soup 67
corned, and cabbage 34
loaf 34
pot roast 32
ragout 33
roast 31
short ribs, braised 34
braised, and onions 32
broiled 32
broiling time 32
flank, stuffed 33
see a/so Heart, Liver, Tongue.
Beets in honey sauce 58
cheese 74
peanut butter 74
plain 74
rich dough 74
corn bread 74
griddlecakes 76
nut loaf 73
pop-overs 76
raisin loaf 73
spoon bread 73
waffles 76
see a/so Biscuits, Muffins, Rolls,
and corned beef, panned 34
and ham, panned 34
and spaghetti, with cheese sauce... 52
chocolate layer 81
cupcakes 81
fruit 82
gingerbread 84
petit fours 81
spiced prune 83
upside-down 82
white layer 81
Cake filling—
cream cheese 83
lemon 83
Cake frosting—
confectioner's sugar 83
"seven minute" 83
Cauliflower au gratin 58
and corn fondue 52
and peanut loaf 51
and rice timbales 51
biscuits v...... 74
muffins 74
rabbit, tomato 50
sauce 70
spoon bread 73
see a/so Cottage cheese.
broiled 41
casserole, with vegetables 43
creamed 43
French-fried 42
fried 42
roast 40
stewed, whole or in pieces 42
with noodles 36
Chop suey 36
Chowder. See Soup.
brownies 85
dried-fruit bars 84
molasses snaps 85
oatmeal 85
peanut butter 84
and cheese fondue 52
bread 74
chowder 69
pudding 58
scalloped 59
Corned beef and cabbage 34
Cottage cheese—
and pineapple salad mold 64
and scrambled eggs 50
Cupcakes 81
Custard, baked 87
bavarian cream, orange 86
brown betty, apple. 86
cobbler, cherry 87
custard, baked 87
fruit whip 86
bread or rice 86
frozen mint 87
see a/so Cakes, Cookies, Pies.
Duck, roast 40
Eggplant, scalloped 59
and fish croquettes 47
and potato scallop 48
baked 48
baked in pepper rings 50
Creole 49
deviled 49
fried 48

in shell—soft- and hard-cooked.... 48
poached 48
poached surprise 49
sauce 70
scrambled with cottage cheese 50
and egg croquettes 47
baked, stuffed or unstuffed 46
broiled 46
chowder 69
french-fried 45
loaf 47
oven-fried 45
pan-fried 45
poached 45
salad, jellied 64
sandwiches, hot 77
shortcake 47
steaks, baked in mustard sauce 46
see also Oyster, Salmon.
Gingerbread 84
Goose, roast 40
Graham cracker pie shell 79
for meat or poultry 71
milk 70
Griddlecakes 76
and cabbage, panned 34
croquettes 37
timbale 37
with noodles 36
with sweetpotatoes 37
beef, braised stuffed 38
calf, braised stuffed 38
chop suey 36
chops, braised 35
chops, pan-broiled 35
curried 36
liver, fried with bacon 38
roast 31
stew, Irish 35
Liver and bacon, fried. 38
Macaroni baked in cheese sauce 51
and vegetable pie 36
and vegetable soup 68
loaf 34
salad, jellied 64
sandwiches 77
see also Beef, Heart, Kidney, Lamb,
Liver, Pork, Veal.
Meringue 79
blueberry 74
cranberry 74
oatmeal 74
peanut butter or cheese 74
plain 74
Mushroom soup, cream of 68
baked in cheese sauce 51
with chicken 36
with ham 36
cookies 85
muffins 74
Okra and tomatoes, stewed 59
and steak, braised 32
baked 59
sauce 71
stew 69
stuffing 41
Pastry, pastry shells 80
soup, cream of 68
soup, with dry peas 67
and cheese loaf 51
and prune salad 64
Peanut butter—
and fruit sauce 72
biscuits 74
cookies 84
muffins 74
sandwiches 77
Peppers, green, stuffed 60
baking guide 80
cream 79
banana cream 79
chocolate cream 79
coconut cream 79
fruit, two-crust 78
graham cracker shell 79
lemon or lime chiffon 80
meat and vegetable 36
pastry, pastry shells 80
pecan 78
pumpkin chiffon 80
sour cream 79
Pop-overs 76
chop suey 36
chops, braised 35
curried 36
roast 31
see a/so Ham, Liver,
and egg scallop 48
baked stuffed 60
golden 60
salad 66
salad, hot 65
scalloped 60
soup 68
Poultry. See Chicken, Duck, Goose,

and cheese Hmbales 51
or bread pudding 86
Parker House 75
yeast 75
apple, red 65
bean, kidney 65
fish, jellied 64
meat, jellied 64
peanut-prune 64
pineapple-cottage cheese mold.... 64
potato 66
potato, hot 65
tomato, stuffed 65
suggested combinations—
fruit 63
Fruit and vegetable 63
vegetable 63
Salad dressing(s)—
cooked 66
sour cream 66
with french dressing 66
with mayonnaise 66
Salmon potpie 47
fillings 77
fish,hot 77
french-toasted 77
meat salad, hot 77
cheese 70
egg 70
gravy for meat or poultry 71
gravy, milk 70
hollandaise 72
honey and orange 72
mustard 46
onion 71
peanut butter-fruit 72
sour cream 72
tartar 72
tomato 71
vanilla 70
white 70
Souffle, vegetable 57
bean or pea 67
corn chowder 69
fish chowder 69
meat and vegetable 68
mushroom, cream of 68
oyster stew 69
pea, cream of 68
potato, quick 68
tomato, cream of 67
and asparagus, scalloped 57
and cabbage, with cheese sauce... 52
baked in cheese sauce 51
Spinach au gratin 61
Spoon bread 73
Squash, baked 61
Steak. See Beef.
Stew. See Lamb, Oyster.
bread 41
oyster 41
and oranges, scalloped 61
baked, stuffed 60
with ham 37
Tim bales—
cheese-rice 51
and okra, stewed 59
baked 61
rabbit 50
salad 65
sauce 71
soup, cream of 67
Tongue, beef 38
Turkey, roast 40
chop suey 36
chops, braised 35
curried 36
loaf 34
roast 31
shoulder, braised 35
and meat pie 36
boiling times 55
creamed 56
fried or browned 56
glazed 56
greens, wilted 57
hot-seasoned 56
in casserole with chicken 43
mashed 56
panned 57
"raw-fried" 56
scalloped 56
souffle 57
see also Asparagus, Beans, and
other vegetables, and Salads,
Sandwiches, Sauces, Soups.
Waffles.. , 76
U. 5. G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : I960

Prepared by
Agricultural Research Administration
U. S. Department of Agriculture
February 1950
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, 0. C. - Price 25 cents