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Pots and Pans for Your Kitchen
Beveridge, Elizabeth
Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics
Agricultural Research Administration
Home and Garden Bulletin 2, USDA
Issued August 1950

Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations.

The PDF file was provided courtesy of the National Agricultural Library.

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your kitchen
Home and Garden Bulletin No, 2
U. S. Department of Agriculture)

Pots and pans
for your kitchen
Because cooking is a regular three-meals-a-day job, the homcmaker
will do well to select her pots and pans with as much care as any crafts-
nian gives to the choice of his working tools.
For good service, a pan must he sturdy enough to take the wear that it
will receive. It must also he convenient to use and care for and suitable
for the kind of cooking to be done in it. Buying pans of good quality
for regular use is usually an economy in the long run. On the other
hand, it may be sheer extravagance to pay for top quality in seldom-used
pans. Quality can be judged to some extent by appearance, but to be
sure of what you are getting, look for utensils with descriptive labels.
Utensils that can serve several purposes are better buys than specialty
pans from the standpoint of both money invested and storage space.
Anyone equipping a kitchen for the first time would do well to start with a
few good-quality, general-use pans and add other pieces as the need for
them becomes apparent. Many an experienced homemaker might well
sort out her utensil cupboards and retire pieces that are not paying their
way, thus making room for a new pan or two that would give valuable
You may prefer pans of different materials and designs—each selected
for a special purpose—or you may want matched pans, which may be
bought in individual pieces or in sets. It all depends on what values you
place first. In considering a set, be sure that each piece is one you need—
a few unused pieces can wipe out any saving you might make in purchas-
ing a
Materials for cooking utensils
Each of the materials commonly used for cooking pans has its good
points. Knowing the characteristics of different materials, together
with your own experience and perhaps that of friends, will help you decide
which to choose for different uses.
9 Aluminum, A
naturally soft metal, aluminum can be used for pots
and pans of all shapes. The addition of small amounts of other metals
to make aluminum alloys, and various manufacturing processes, give the
better wares resistance to bending and warping. Aluminum utensils are
either cast or formed from sheet metal.

Sheet aluminum is made in different thicknesses or gages. Pans made
from medium to heavy gages are very durable. Utensils of very light
weights are cheapest, but too thin to stand up under daily use. Thin
metal is satisfactory for pans that are used only occasionally. For oven-
ware, lighter gage aluminum than that found in good-quality top-of-stove
pans may be used.
Cast aluminum is heavier than most of the sheet aluminum used in
pans. It is rigid, does not warp, is very durable, and in good quality
resists pitting. It is not often used for baking pans.
Whether cast or sheet, aluminum distributes heat evenly. Except for
large pieces of cast or extra-heavy-gage sheet metal, aluminum utensils
are light enough to be handled easily.
Brightly polished aluminum ovcnware reflects heat so that food browns
very lightly. Unpolished or dull-finished aluminum absorbs heat and
produces a browner crust.
Though easily darkened by alkalies in foods and water, aluminum
responds readily to polishing with metal wool. (On a highly polished or
chrome-plated finish use only a fine cleansing powder.) Rubbing with
ordinary household acids—vinegar, lemon juice, cream of tartar—will
brighten darkened areas. Or cook an acid food such as rhubarb or
tomatoes in the pan. There is no evidence that the darkening of alu-
minum has any harmful effect on food or that aluminum can have any
harmful effect on health.
Do not leave salty foods or liquids standing in aluminum; they may
cause pitting of the metal.
9 Copper,
Though an excellent conductor of heat, copper is seldom
used by itself in utensils, mainly because of the work of keeping it bright.
Copper is often applied to the bottoms of utensils made of other metals
to improve evenness of heating. All-copper teakettles sometimes have
chrome-plated tops for ease of upkeep.
© Cast !ron.
Cast iron is an old favorite for fry pans and Dutch ovens.
It heats slowly but quite evenly. In large pans it is heavy to handle.
Cast iron improves with use—fat fills the pores, making food less likely
to stick and the pan less likely to rust.
Some cast-iron utensils come seasoned, ready to use: if seasoned, a uten-
sil will be so labeled. Others need to be rubbed with unsalted fat and left
in a warm oven for several hours before using.
To prevent rusting, dry cast iron thoroughly after each use.
• Dark sheet metal.
Some inexpensive fry pans are made of dark
sheet iron or steel. They are light in weight but do not heat evenly and
are likely to warp and rust.

• Russia iron.
Russia iron, sheet iron with a smooth black coating,
is used for ovenware. It is satisfactory for such utensils as drip pans
but produces too dark a browning for most baked foods.
Never scour Russia iron; scouring may remove the protecting oxide
that keeps the metal from rusting.
• Stainless steel.
One of the newer materials, stainless steel (a steel
alloy) is still rather expensive, but practically indestructible. A utensil
made entirely of stainless steel tends to become too hot in spots so the
heat must be kept low to prevent burning food in top-of-stove pans.
To improve evenness of heating, copper or aluminum is often applied to
the undersurface, or a special heat-distributing core is used in the steel.
As yet few home baking pans arc made of stainless steel. Because it
is a darker metal than aluminum, it absorbs heat more readily and
produces a darker crust on baked foods.
Overheating turns stainless steel dark in spots. This darkening is
likely to be permanent, but will not impair the usefulness of a utensil.
Rigorous cleaning methods do not harm the metal.
• Tinware.
As a material for oven use, tinware, which is steel or iron
coated with tin, is well known. It is not suitable for top of stove use.
Cheap grades of tinware may have pin-point holes in the coating that
cannot be seen until rust appears at these spots.
When bright and new, tinware reflects oven heat, browning food lightly.
With use, the ware darkens and browns food more. Some tinware—
usually in light weights—has a prcsscd-in rippled or honeycomb pattern,
which helps the pan resist warping.
Always wash tinware and dry it well immediately after using. Do not
scour or scrape it with sharp tools; such cleaning methods may cause
breaks in the tin coating and the metal base will rust.
• Enameledware.
The surface of enameledware is really glass fused
onto a steel base by firing at high temperature. It is smooth and non-
porous, easy to clean. Better enameledware is resistant to acids and not
so readily marked by metal spoons as is the lower grade ware. It is also
far more resistant to chipping.
Quality in enameledware depends on the number of coats of enamel
and the thickness of the base. Dark blue or gray utensils arc often made
with a single coat of enamel; utensils of other colors, or white, usually
have one dark base coat and two coats of the surface color, each fired
separately. When buying, ask about the quality of the base and number
of coats of enamel.
Enameledware is most used for saucepans, kettles, and such utensils
as bowls. Except for covered roasters, enameledware is not often used

for ovenware. For baking pans it gives too much browning to be gener-
ally satisfactory. Enameledware cannot be used for searing meat or
frying unless it is a type made especially for that purpose.
The clue to care of enameledwarc is found in its construction—treat it
as you would glass. Avoid sharp knocks and see that utensils do not
boil dry.
Before washing enameledwarc, soak it when necessary to loosen sticking
food. Baking soda on a damp cloth will remove discolorations. Coarse
scouring powders or metal pads may scratch the glazed surface, destroy-
ing one of the best features of the ware.
• Glass.
A familiar and popular material for ovenware and for coffee
makers and teapots, heat-resistant glass has more recently appeared in
saucepans and double boilers. Its unique advantage in range-top use is
its transparency—foods and water level can be seen without removing
the cover.
Glass oven pans absorb heat readily and hold it well, making them
good for serving as well as cooking food. Foods baked in glass are
usually crusty and rather heavily browned. If you do not want the
heavy crust you can use an oven temperature 25° lower than for baking
in pans of light-colored metal. (Recipe temperatures are commonly
based on the use of aluminum.)
The hard, smooth surface of glassware is easy to keep clean. Soak
utensils to loosen stuck-on food. Use fine cleaning powder rather than
rough cleansers that might scratch the surface. Utensils of glass should
be protected from sharp changes in temperature and from boiling dry.
Always put food, fat, or water into a glass utensil before heating it—
don't pour liquid into a hot, dry pan. Before putting a glass utensil
over direct heat, be careful to have the outside dry. Always set a hot
pan on a dry surface and use dry pot holders.
Use glassware on top of the range only if it was made for that use—
there is a difference between top-of-range and oven glassware. Be sure
to read and follow directions that come with the glass utensils you buy;
breakage-replacement guarantees are valid only when such instructions
are followed.
• Pottery. Casseroles and custard cups are the most common cooking
utensils made of pottery. Pottery is usually glazed both inside and
outside to give it a smooth, easy-to-clean surface. However, French-
type pottery is glazed only on the inside. Pottery is especially good for
baking dishes that go to the table because, like glass, it holds heat well.
Like glass, pottery is easily cleaned by soaking and washing. To
prevent breakage, it needs to be protected from sudden changes in

Pans for range-top use
Whatever the type of utensil you need for use on top of the range,
you will find a wide choice in designs as well as materials. Weigh the
advantages of each and then decide which will suit you best. Look for
sturdiness because top-of-stove pans are used constantly and are subjected
to direct heat, often at high temperatures.
Coffee makers
In many homes the coffee maker is the most frequently used of all
utensils. You will make the best coffee by using the recommended grind
and carefully following directions for your particular coffee maker.
Best extraction of flavor occurs if water is a few degrees below boiling
when it is in contact with ground coffee.
Coffeepot, percolator, drip coffee maker, and vacuum coffee maker are
the common types. The important difference in them is the way in
which the water contacts the ground coffee.
• Coffeepot.
The coffeepot is a simple utensil in which boiling water
and coffee are combined, stirred, and allowed to steep for a few minutes.
It is hard to keep the temperature below boiling in a coffeepot, and the
coffee is likely to be muddy and rather bitter. Unless your family def-
initely prefers coffee made in a pot and you know from experience that
you can get good results, you may be better satisfied with some other
type of coffee maker.
Coffeepot, percolator, vacuum and drip coffee makers—each comes in
different materials and sizes/ choose the one that suits your needs.

Coffeepots are most often made of aluminum or enameledware, but
come also in stainless steel.
• Percolator.
Though the percolator may resemble the coffeepot on
the outside, it has inner fittings that change the method of making
coffee. A perforated metal basket holds the ground coffee near the top
of the utensil; a tube extends from the bottom through the center of the
basket. When water is heated it rises through the tube, then sprays
over the coffee, extracting flavor as it seeps down through. The process
is continuous as long as the percolator is on the heat. Usually 5 to 10
minutes of percolating are enough for 4 to 6 cups of coffee.
The design of the coffee basket is important. Too many holes can let
the water run through before it has time to extract full flavor from the
coffee. Too few holes may permit the water to accumulate in the basket
and flood over the top, carrying coffee grounds with it. (Too much heat
also can cause flooding hy too rapid percolation.)
In some percolators spreader plates over the coffee baskets help dis-
tribute water evenly. They also keep ground coffee from being washed
overboard if percolation becomes too rapid. The glass top on a per-
colator also helps spread the water.
In the most common type of percolator, the upright tube is attached to
a domed plate that rests on the flat bottom of the utensil. Before per-
colating starts, all of the water must be near boiling, and unless heat is
very carefully controlled, the brewed coffee may boil.
Most electric percolators, and some of the more expensive nonelectric
models, have a valve instead of a domed plate at the base of the tube;
the valve rests in a cup in the bottom of the percolator. Percolating
starts almost immediately because only the water in the cup has to be
heated to start the action. In this type the brew is not so likely to
reach the boiling point, but the percolator is a little harder to clean.
Percolators are made of sheet or cast aluminum, enameledware, stain-
less steel, or glass.
• Drip coffee maker.
Drip coffee is considered by many to be the
simplest kind to make. A drip coffee maker consists of three parts, plus
a cover. A middle perforated section holds the ground coffee. Over
it is a container for hot water, with a few well-spaced holes in the bottom
to let the water drip slowly over the coffee. The finished brew collects in
the bottom pot. Water that is boiling when poured into the top con-
tainer reaches the ground coffee at the right temperature—just below
The drip coffee maker may be of aluminum, stainless steel, enameled-
ware, or pottery, or it may combine a pottery pot with aluminum con-
tainers for coffee and water.

Filters for vacuum coffee makers, whatever their shape or material,
must let liquid coffee pass and hold back the grounds.
0 Vacuum coffee maker.
A vacuum coffee maker is somewhat like
an hourglass in shape. It has two bowls, the lower one for water, the
upper one for brewing coffee. At the bottom of the upper howl is a
funnel-like tube into which a filter is fitted. The tube should reach to
about half an inch of the bottom of the lower bowl to permit most of the
water to rise, yet keep enough in the lower bowl to prevent boiling dry.
A gasket may be used to insure a tight seal between the bowls, or the
seal may be made by two ground-glass surfaces.
Water is measured into the lower bowl, the upper bowl is put in place,
and the ground coffee measured into it. The device is then placed on a
source of heat, cither the kitchen range or the electric unit that comes
with some vacuum coffee makers. Some electric models have built-in
heating units and operate automatically.
As the water heats and steam is created, the pressure forces the almost -
boiling water up the tube onto the coffee. After a minute or two, the
heat is turned off or the coffee maker is removed from the stove. The
slight cooling of the lower bowl reduces the pressure so that the liquid—
now brewed coffee—flows back into the lower bowl. The filter holds
back the coffee grounds.
In the early vacuum coffee makers, the kwer bowls had narrow necks;
now, most of them are wide enough to make washing easy.
Filters may be of cloth on a pottery block or metal frame, or of stain-
less steel, pottery, plastic, or glass. Often filters are held in place by a
spring; glass rods may depend on their own weight. Different types of
filters are illustrated above.
The cloth filter gives the clearest coffee but it is more of a nuisance to
care for. If it is not kept fresh and clean, it may produce an off-flavor
that is worse than cloudiness.

Vacuum coffee makers are of glass, aluminum, stainless steel, or
enameledware, or they may be a combination of glass with one of the
other materials.
• Choosing a coffee maker.
Choose the type of coffee maker that
seems to you the most convenient to use and that makes the kind of coffee
your family likes. A coffee maker the right size for the family is more
convenient for everyday than an oversize one—and coffee makers, except
the coffeepot and valve-type percolator, work best when used at more
than half their full capacity. When company comes, make coffee twice,
or have a second coffee maker for special occasions.
Look for a coffee maker with a broad base so that it will stand firmly;
watch this especially in tall drip and vacuum types, which may be top-
heavy when there is water in the upper container.
See that the handle is comfortable to hold and placed so that hot coffee
may be poured easily. A handle attached close to the bottom of the
coffee maker should have a metal shield to protect it from burning. Be
sure the cover will not fall off when the pot is tipped for pouring. A
lip or spout with a rather sharp point is easy to pour from and not likely
to drip.
Look for smooth surfaces that can be kept clean easily. Seams or
crevices may collect sediment which will become rancid and give an
off-flavor to coffee.
• Care of the coffee maker.
Good coffee can be made only in a
clean coffee maker. Off-flavors are sometimes blamed on the material of
the coffee maker when poor cleaning is really responsible. After each
use wash the coffee maker with hot water and soap or other dishwashing
detergent and rinse with clear water. Use a brush to clean any parts
that are hard to reach otherwise. If stains appear, remove them by
methods recommended for the material from which the utensil is made.
Teapots are most often of glass or pottery—materials that hold heat
well—but they come also in aluminum and enameledware. Or the lower
part of a coffee maker may serve as a teapot. Some women find it an
advantage to have a teapot that can be placed over direct heat for boiling
the water for tea. If you use loose tea, you may want a pot with a
straining device.
With tea, quality of the brew is not so dependent on the size of the
pot as with coffee. However, a pot that holds the right amount of tea
lor the family is most convenient.

Fry pans
Pans for frying food—you may know them as frying pans, fry pans,
skillets, or spiders—are in daily use in many homes. They come in sizes
from 6 to 12 inches in diameter; most are between 7 and 10 inches. A
large pan is used most often, but it is convenient to have a smaller one,
too. If the fry pan is to be used for pancakes and french toast as well
as for meat, it must be extra large, which makes it awkward to handle;
with a griddle for these purposes, the fry pan can be a little smaller.
Although frying is done in an uncovered pan, it is usually worth while
to buy a fry pan with a close-fitting cover so that it will be equally satis-
factory for braising and other cooking methods that require moisture.
For thick pieces of meat, a domed cover provides the needed height; a
deep pan with domed cover is sometimes known as a chicken fryer. In
a twin fryer, one pan forms a cover for the other. Each may be used
separately as an uncovered pan.
• Materials.
Because fry pans are used right over the heat, often
without water, they must be of materials not damaged by high temper-
atures. For even browning of food a material that distributes heat well
is a requirement, particularly if the pan is larger in diameter than the
burner or heating element on which it is used.
Cast aluminum and cast iron arc good for fry pans, but large pans of
these materials may be heavy to handle. Heavy-gage sheet aluminum
is good, too, and easier to lift. Stainless steel is also lighter in weight
than cast metals; to be satisfactory for fry pans, it should have a heat-
distributing surface or core.
The fry pan family includes a twin fryer, deep Dutch oven, large fry pan
with tight cover, an open griddle, and a small pan without a cover.

Lightweight or poor-quality sheet metals are likely to warp. Warping
causes the pan to teeter on the range so that the fat runs to one side and
the food cooks unevenly and sticks to the pan.
• Handles.
The handle is an important feature of a fry pan—for safety
you must be able to hold a hot pan securely, without tipping. Be sure
that the handle is long enough to afford a good grip, smooth enough for
comfort, and shaped so that it will not turn in the hand.
On cast iron fry pans the handle is cast with the pan. Cast aluminum
pans usually have shanks cast with the pan; pans of sheet aluminum or
stainless steel, have shanks that are welded or riveted on. Cast or
welded shanks leave the inside of the pan smoother than do riveted
shanks. Handles of heat-resisting plastic or wood are attached to the
shanks. See that shanks are long enough to protect the handle from
burning and that handles arc firm and secure. (See illustration, p. 14.)
A knob on the cover should be large enough and so shaped that you can
grasp it firmly with a pot holder without touching the hot metal.
• Special fip on care. Do not pour liquid into a very hot fry pan—
the sudden change in temperature may cause warping. Turn off the
heat or set the pan aside for a minute or two before pouring in the liquid.
Spattering of fat and danger of burns will also be reduced.
Dutch ovens
Dutch ovens serve many of the same purposes as heavy, covered fry
pans, but since they are deeper they will accommodate thicker pieces of
meat. They are useful too for stews and soups.
Dutch ovens are made of heavy aluminum, stainless steel, or cast iron,
and have close-fitting covers. The utensil usually has either two side-
handles or a bail handle with one side handle for balancing. Choose
the type of handle that seems to you the easier to manage.
If you often need a large surface for cooking pancakes and the like, a
griddle is the answer. For even browning, the material must be one
that distributes heat well, and is heavy enough not to warp. Cast or
heavy sheet aluminum is good, as is magnesium alloy, a new material
which is used and cleaned like aluminum. On coal ranges, where most
of the undcrsurface of the griddle is in contact with the hot stove, cast
iron is also satisfactory.

Saucepans, saucepofs, kettles
The main difference between saucepans, saucepots, and kettles is in
the type of handle; all three are top-of-range utensils that have similar
Pans with long single handles are called saucepans. Saucepots have a
handgrip on either side instead of the long handle. When both hands are
needed to lift a filled pan the two handgrips arc more convenient than
the single handle. For this reason, pans larger than 3-quart size are
usually of the saucepot type.
Kettles are utensils with a bail-type handle. They come in sizes larger
than saucepans and saucepots, though there are small kettles as well as
large ones. A large kettle may have a side handle in addition to the bail.
It is a help in steadying the kettle when lifting it and for tipping it when
Any kitchen needs at least three saucepans or saucepots. One each of
1-, 3-, and 4-quart capacities is usually a good selection. Another of
whatever size you use most is desirable. You may prefer saucepots to
saucepans because handles of saucepans sometimes get in the way of
other pans on the range or extend out beyond the edge of the range where
they are in danger of being run into by passersby. However, saucepans
are easier to hold for pouring or stirring.
In addition to saucepans and saucepots, most hornemakers need a large
kettle for such purposes as making soups or stews in quantity, cooking a
whole ham, or blanching vegetables and fruits for canning or freezing.
Kettles, saucepans, saucepots of many sizes are made of aluminum and its
alloys, stainless steel, and enamel. Saucepans come in glass, too.

Handles for saucepans: Steel handle on an aluminum pan/ glass handle
attached with metal band to a glass pan,- handle enameled same as the pan;
plastic handle on metal shank, welded to a stainless-steel pan.
For general use, choose pans with bottoms broad enough to cover the
burner or heating unit so that heat will be used efficiently. Of course
you may need also a pan of smaller diameter for heating small quantities
of food.
For cooking vegetables by the recommended method—in only a little
water—it is best to have pans that will be at least half filled with the
vegetable. With larger pans you have to use more water and usually
have more liquid left than can be served.
• Materials.
Saucepans, saucepots, and kettles may be made of most
of the materials satisfactory for use on top of the range—aluminum,
enamcledware, stainless steel, or glass. With these utensils evenness of
heat distribution is not quite so important as with fry pans because the
boiling of liquid in the pan helps to distribute heat. However, food is
less likely to stick if the material heats evenly.
• Handles,
Saucepans are most convenient to work with when handles
are of materials that do not become too hot to touch, so you don't have
to bother with pot holders. Inexpensive aluminum pans usually have
handles of steel. Handles of more expensive pans are often of plastic,
which stays cool. Glassware for range-top use may have glass or plastic
handles attached with metal bands or clamps. The handles of most
enamcledware saucepans arc welded to the steel base and then enameled
along with the pan.
When you select a saucepan, pick it up to find out whether the handle
is long enough to be grasped firmly, large enough so that your fingers are
not cramped in holding it, and with no sharp edges to cut your hand.
Metal rivets or shanks in a plastic handle may become uncomfortably
hot, so be sure your hand will not be likely to touch them.
In choosing a saucepot. be sure to notice whether the side handgrips
are large enough and so designed that you can grasp them easily and hold
them securely.

Left, welded handle,-
pan is smooth inside.
Right, riveted handle
showing round rivet
heads inside the pan.
Left, the inset cover
fits into rim of the
pan. Right, the vapor-
seal cover rests in a
trough at rim of pan.
A secure handgrip on the bail of a kettle is a convenience. The bail
should lock in an upright position so that the kettle will not sway when
it is lifted. The upright position also helps keep the handle cool while
the kettle is on the range. If the kettle has side handles, make sure that
they are of a size and shape to be grasped easily with pot holders.
• Covers.
For most cooking done in a saucepan, saucepot, or kettle a
well-fitting cover is important, though a smai! pan used mostly for heating
food and for making sauces may not need one. A cover keeps steam in
the pan and makes for uniform cooking, permits cooking with low heat
in the smallest possible amount of water. A cover that fits tightly is far
more effective than one laid loosely on the pan.
See that cover knobs are large enough to get hold, of easily without
touching the cover, or if not of heat-resisting material, large enough to
grasp with a pot holder or designed to be lifted with a two-tined fork.
9 Construction features.
Look for pans and kettles that are easy to
clean. Where handles are attached there may be dirt-catching creases.

Welding joins handle to pan more smoothly than riveting and leaves the
inside of the pan smooth. With riveting, the rivet head is on the inside
of the
To make stirring food and washing the pan easy, side and bottom
should meet in a curve rather than a sharp angle.
Notice the balance of the utensil. A handle that is too heavy may
cause a pan to tip. A pan that tips easily when empty is likely to tip
when it contains only a little food or when it is set on an uneven surface.
A pan that is well-balanced with the cover on may be an annoying tipper
with the cover off.
A flat bottom helps to keep a pan from tipping, but even more im-
portant, it makes good contact with the range so that the pan heats
well. When a pan is warped these advantages are lost.
Measuring marks on a saucepan are a convenience. Such marks are
sometimes stamped into sheet metal or fired into enamel.
• Care.
For general care of saucepans, saucepots, and kettles follow
the directions on care of the material from which the utensils are made.
To avoid damage to pans from boiling dry or burning, use low heat—
as long as food is boiling, you can't hurry the cooking by increasing the
heat. If a pan does burn, be sure to let it cool until you can hold your
hand on it before you put water into the pan or the pan into water. If
doused with water when hot, metal is likely to warp, enameledware to
chip, glassware or cast metal to break. Let a burned pan soak for hall
an hour or so, then loosen stuck-on food with a wooden spoon.
Pans of enamel, glass, or steel may be filled with water with a little
soap or soda added, then heated slowly. Omit soap or soda when soak-
ing an aluminum pan or you will make more work for yourself because
the metal will darken. A brush will remove food from the hard surface
of glass or enameledware without scratching it. Metal wool pads may
be used on aluminum or steel.
Waterless cookers
Waterless cookers arc utensils that make efficient use of heat and retain
steam so well that moisture for cooking is supplied by the food itself or
by the water clinging to vegetables after washing. The cookers may be
of special design, but well-constructed saucepans or saucepots with tight-
fitting covers may be used.
Waterless cooking requires that heat be kept at the point where steam
is active enough for cooking without being strong enough to raise the lid
and escape.

Deep, narrow inset pan of double boiler at left is convenient
for beating and stirring. Wide, flat-bottomed inset pan at
right is a better shape for use as a separate pan.
Double boilers
A double boiler provides a way to cook foods that tend to stick or are
damaged if allowed to boil—long-cooking cereals and milk and egg dishes,
for example. Some women rarely use a double boiler because with the
newer ranges heat can be better controlled than with old-time ranges.
These women may want a double boiler designed to be used as two
separate pans. In this type, the inset pan must have a flat bottom.
Women who use a double boiler a great deal may prefer the deeper,
narrower inset. It is more convenient for stirring and beating, but less
useful as a separate pan.
The part of the inset pan below the supporting bulge should be deep
enough so that a large proportion of the pan can be surrounded by steam
to provide a good-sized cooking area.
Both parts of a double boiler must have handles so they can be lifted
separately. Be sure that the handle of the lower part is convenient for
lifting the combination as a single unit, or that the two handles are
arranged so that they can both be grasped easily with one hand.
The materials used for saucepans arc satisfactory for double boilers.
With aluminum, the inside of the bottom pan is hard to keep bright—
the constant use of water darkens it. Glass offers an advantage in that
it is always possible to see whether the water is boiling—important when
making custards and sauces for which the water should be almost but
not quite boiling. Enameledware is a popular material lor double
boilers too.

Though unimportant to some homemakers, the teakettle is indispensable
to others. A teakettle of water on the range can take care of small
cooking needs and save many steps, especially if the kitchen water supply
is some distance away.
When the teakettle is used primarily for boiling water for coffee or tea.
the whistling type may be preferred, since it leaves no doubt as to when
the water is boiling. "Whistlers" are usually of 2- to 4-quart capacity.
If the teakettle is used to heat water for dishwashing and other purposes
a larger one is needed; you can get them as large as 8 quarts. Because
a big kettle full of water is heavy to lift, don't have one larger than you
Look for a handle large enough and in a position to be grasped easily.
If there is a bail, make sure that it can be snapped into an upright posi-
tion where it will stay cool and be easy to reach over other utensils. Look
for smooth easily cleaned outside surfaces; a teakettle on the range collects
spattering grease.
The teakettle spout should be large enough to fill under the faucet.
If water is hard and scale-forming, the kettle needs a top opening also
so that the inside is accessible for cleaning. Be sure the opening is large
enough for convenience, and also that the lid will stay in place when
the kettle is tipped.
Frequent washing of the inside of a teakettle helps to prevent the
accumulation of mineral deposits. To remove deposits, boil a mixture of
equal parts of vinegar and water in the kettle, cool, and let stand several
hours. This treatment loosens the scale so that it is usually possible to
scrape it off with a wooden spoon.
Teakettles that whistle—like the two on the left—are usually
small,- larger ones have removable lids.

Pressure cookers
The first pressure cookers manufactured for home use were large affairs
designed especially for canning, and too cumbersome for general use.
These are now commonly known as pressure canners, and the newer,
smaller ones as pressure cookers or saucepans.
Pressure cookers are so called because they hold steam inside so that
pressure is built up. As a result, temperatures are higher than in an
ordinary pan, and cooking is speedier. Most time is saved when the
cooker is used for foods that need long cooking—dry beans, less tender
meats, and poultry. At high altitudes where food cooks more slowly
because of the lower boiling point of water, the pressure cooker offers a
special advantage.
In using a pressure cooker, remember that steam cooking cannot be
expected to duplicate the results of open-pan oven cooking.
• Materials.
Because the pressure cooker does its work by steam pres-
sure—a powerful force—the utensil must be made of good-quality
materials and constructed carefully and sturdily. Heavy-gage sheet
aluminum or aluminum alloy, cast aluminum, or stainless steel are the
materials generally used.
• Sizes.
Most manufacturers make cookers of approximately 4-quart
capacity. A few make smaller ones of about 2
/z quarts and several are
now making larger ones of 6- to 8-quart sizes. The little cookers hold
enough of most vegetables for a small family, but if you want to use the
cooker for meats, the medium or large sizes will probably be more satis-
factory. A pressure skillet, designed especially for meat cookery, is
Some of the many pressure cookers on the market: 4-quart sizes in aluminum
and stainless steel, broad skillet, 7-quart and 2
/2-quart cookers.

Pressure cooker closures:
1. Handles draw together, lock cover.
2. Flexible lid draws up to pan rim.
3. Rigid oval lid draws up to rim.
4. Encircling clamp holds cover on.
broader and shallower than a pressure saucepan. Its larger diameter
makes it good for the preliminary browning of meat and it accommodates
many cuts very nicely.
• Closures.
One of the first things you will notice in pressure cookers
is the different ways of closing. Whatever the method used, the cover
must fit the pan tightly. A gasket of rubber or rubberlike compound
works like the rubber ring of a fruit jar to fill the space between cover
and pan and prevent leakage of steam.
In one type of cooker the cover has a handle matching the handle of
the pan. In closing the cooker, the cover is placed on the pan with its
handle a little to one side of the handle of the pan, with lugs on the cover
matching notches on the pan. As handles are drawn together, the cover
is locked in position. Cookers with this type of closing have straight or
almost straight sides.
Another type of cooker is slightly smaller at the top so that the lid
fits inside. The lid, of flexible metal, has an arched shape when not on
the cooker. It is slipped into the pan at an angle and drawn up against
the rim. Pressure in the pan pushes the lid up all the harder and makes
the seal tighter. A variation of this type is a rigid lid slightly oval in

shape. This too is slipped into the pan and drawn up against the inside
of the
In still another type of cooker, the cover and pan are held together
by an encircling clamp. The pan has straight sides.
The cooker with inside closing has an extra safety feature in that the
lid cannot be removed when there is pressure in the pan. The straight-
sided pan is easier to stir food in and to pour from.
• Pressure indicators and controls.
A pressure cooker may have
either a pressure indicator or a pressure control.
Indicators or gages are devices that show the number of pounds of
pressure in the pan. The user adjusts the heat to control pressure.
If your range is one on which you can control heat accurately, and if
you can see to read the gage clearly, you can use this type of cooker
successfully. Otherwise a cooker with controlled pressure will be a
better choice.
Pressure controls are either weights or springs. When steam pressure
passes the allowed point it lifts the weight or stretches the spring enough
to let a little steam escape and so keeps pressure from going higher.
Each cooker has a characteristic sound to indicate that it is operating at
pressure—the hissing or puffing of steam or the rocking of a weight.
Too rapid a hissing or rocking is your signal to reduce the heat. Letting
it go wastes heat and will boil away the liquid from the cooker. If heat
gets too high the mechanism may not be able to exhaust the extra steam
fast enough to keep pressure down to a safe point.
A cooker with a pressure indicator can be operated at any desired
pressure—provided the heat can be held at the right point to maintain
it. Cookers with controls operate at definite pressure, usually 15 pounds,
but some give a choice of pressures from 5 to 15 pounds. For cooking
fresh and dried vegetables, dried fruits, and cereals, the 15-pound pressure
is generally used in any cooker. Meats may be cooked at 15 pounds or
at lower pressures. The lower pressures require longer cooking times,
but many consider that results are better. For canning, a cooker that
can be operated at 10 pounds pressure is necessary.
Left to right, two pressure indicators, three weight-type controls

Upper metai knob in left cover and rubber buttons in center covers are safety
plugs. Holes which can be seen in all covers are steam vents.
• Safety devices.
Pressure cookers are equipped with safety devices
to relieve excess pressure if for some reason the regular controls should
fail to operate. If your cooker is used correctly, the safety release will
probably never be called into use, but be sure there is one.
Two types of safety release are in general use—a plug of rubber or
rubberlike plastic and a small metal plug. If pressure goes too high the
rubber or plastic plug is blown out. The metal plug will melt at too high
a temperature whether due to the pressure or to the cooker boiling dry.
With either plug, pressure is released rather violently, but before it reaches
the danger point. In some cookers the plug is placed under a bridge or
handle brace so that if it blows, the food will be directed downward over
the surface of the cooker instead of upward where it might strike the user
or the walls.
In the cover of a pressure cooker is a very small vent tube leading to
the controlling device or indicator. If this tube becomes clogged, the
indicator or control fails to operate and there is no way of knowing when
there is pressure in the pan. As a protection against clogging, the vent
tube in some cookers extends a little beyond the inner surface of the
cover and has one or more side openings as well as the main one. A
bit of food might stop up one opening but wouldn't be likely to close
them all.
• Handles.
Because a pressure cooker gets hotter than ordinary top-
of-range utensils, good handles are especially important. If cover and
pan have matching handles, try lifting the cooker with the cover closed.
Notice whether you can reach around both handles comfortably, with a
good grip and without pinching your hand. INolice too whether the
handles are long enough so that you can hold them with both hands
without touching the hot metal.

Some cookers have small handles on opposite sides. These do not get
in the way of other pans on the range as long handles do, and are more
attractive if the cooker goes to the table. They are less convenient for
pouring and make it necessary always to use both hands for lifting the
cooker. A large cooker sometimes has a long side handle and a small
ear-type one opposite to help in carrying the pan. Be sure that ear-type
side handles are large enough so that you can hold them firmly with pot
• Using a pressure cooker.
The pressure cooker is not a utensil to
be used casually. It is advisable not to leave it unattended. If the
audible signal is quite clear, you can work in other parts of the room, but
if you must leave the room for more than a few minutes, it is best to turn
off the heat and resume cooking when you return—making the necessary
time allowance.
Become familiar with the directions that were developed for your
cooker and operate it accordingly. Care in use will pay off not only in
safety but in good cooking results—a pressure cooker will overcook food
in a hurry as well as cook it fast.
Take special care to keep the vent tube from clogging. To avoid any
possibility of liquid food, such as soup, boiling up into the tube, some
manufacturers tell you not to fill the cooker more than two-thirds full.
When you cook bony meats or other bulky foods that extend into the
upper part of the cooker, be sure that no piece could possibly touch the
vent tube. To control frothing of such foods as split peas, cranberries,
rhubarb, and applesauce, bring pressure up slowly. Some manufacturers
advise against cooking these foods in a pressure pan.
• Care of the pressure cooker.
Cleanliness is the first rule in the
care of a pressure cooker. At each washing look to see that the vent tube
is clear—a pipe cleaner is a help in cleaning it. Covers with pressure
gages should never be immersed in water, nor should the weights that
are used to control pressure. It is usually best not to put any type of
cover in the dishpan because bits of food or grease might find their way
into the vent tube.
Wash the gasket well; the rubber or rubberlike compound may be
injured if grease accumulates on it. Some gaskets are removable for
thorough washing.
Avoid damage to the rims of cooker and lid. These are the sealing
surfaces and a dent could cause a leak that would make it difficult or
impossible to build up steam pressure.
Do not cover the cooker tightly when it is not in use. Leave the
cover loose so that air can circulate. Have a special place for a detachable
weight and always put it there—otherwise you may lose as much time
hunting it as you save by using the pressure pan.

Pans for oven use
In general, pans for use in the oven do not get the regular hard wear
that range-top pans do. Therefore they are often of lighter weight.
However, the selection of baking pans is equally important because the
quality of baked products is more influenced by pans than is that of
foods cooked on top of the range.
Construction features
To bake foods well pans must be sturdy enough to stay flat on the bot-
tom and not be easily bent out of shape. Construction, as well as weight
and quality of material used, affects durability. A rolled-top edge gives a
sheet metal pan strength and rigidity. A cooky or baking sheet that
does not have a turned-up edge all around to give it added strength needs
to be of heavier metal to keep it rigid.
When selecting an oven pan, be sure that it is designed for easy handling
with pot holders. Rolled rims help prevent metal pans from slipping
from the grasp. Oven dishes of glazed pottery or .glass, which are both
smooth and heavy, should have handles or protruding rims or ears bv
which they can be lifted securely.
Look for pans without hard-to-clean seams and crevices. The smoother
the pan, the easier it is to remove food.
Points on sizes
Results in baking depend partly on the size of the pan in relation to
the size of the recipe. A pan that is too deep will prevent food from
browning well on top. One that is too shallow will let food run over in
the oven. It may not be possible to have a pan of the ideal size for each
recipe, but be sure to have sizes you need for the recipes you use most
Be sure, too, that the pans arc a size to fit your oven. This is especially
important for layer cake pans or piepans that are used two, three, or
even four at a time. The pans should go into the oven without touching
each other or the oven walls so that they will not interfere with circula-
tion of heat. They may be placed diagonally on a shelf, and if two shelves
are used, those on the lower shelf should be arranged in the opposite
direction from those on the top shelf. Just be sure that no pan need be
placed directly above or below another. A large pan should be enough
smaller than the oven so that there is room for hot air to circulate around
it on all sides.

Measurements of pans, as given in recipes, are for the top inside
dimensions of the pans. Depth is the vertical depth—not the length of
a sloping side.
Pan sizes given in this publication are among sizes that have recently
been adopted as standard by the American Standards Association.
Though other sizes may be available, recipes and packaged mixes will
call more and more for pans of these sizes.
Cake pans
• Layer cake pans.
Pans for layer cakes most often are round, 8 or
9 inches in diameter. Many new cake recipes call for 8-inch pans about
\\}{ inches deep or 9-inch pans 1/2 inches deep.
Layer cake pans come with solid or loose bottoms. Some women find
it easier to get cake out of the pans without breaking if the pans have
loose bottoms, but very thin batters may leak from them, especially if
the bottoms become slightly bent.
Since a lightly browned crust is usually preferred for layer cakes, pans
of fairly bright aluminum or tinware are best.
• Square and oblong cake pans.
Many cake recipes call for square
or oblong pans a little deeper than layer cake pans. Baked in such pans,
cakes are a little lower and crustier at the corners than in the center.
Square pans are most often either 8 inches on a side and 2 inches deep
or 9 by 9 by \\% inches. An oblong pan 11 by 7 by 1% inches is usable
Cake pans. Top row: Spring-form, tube pan, loose-bottom layer pans.
Botfom row: Solid-bottom layer pans, oblong pan, rack, and square pan.

for the same purposes hut just a little smaller than the 8-inch-square
pan. There are larger oblong pans which are useful for extra-large cakes,
especially those that are iced in the pan.
These pans are convenient for baking rolls, coffee cakes, biscuits, and
corn bread as well as cakes. In the larger sizes they may be used for
roasts also. The pans may be had in aluminum, tin, or glass.
• Loaf cake pans.
For loaf cakes the same pan can be used as for
bread. See page 26.
• Cooky sheet.
Best for baking cookies is a pan without sides. The
cooky sheet is described on page 27.
• Tube or angel cake pan.
A tube pan is used most for angel, sponge,
or chiffon cake. For these delicate cakes a pan of aluminum or tinware
that gives a lightly browned crust is best.
The tube should be taller than the pan sides to keep the top of the
cake from touching the table when it is inverted for cooling. See that
the tube is wide enough to support the pan, or that there are legs on the
pan for this purpose.
Bottoms of tube pans may be loose or solid.
A tube pan 9 inches in diameter and 3J< inches deep is the right size for
an angel cake made with 1 cup of egg whites. For \\% cups of egg whites
you need a 10-inch pan 4 inches deep.
• Special cake pans.
There are many different pans for baking spe-
cial kinds of cakes—deep round pans with straight sides, in graduated
sizes, for fruit or wedding cakes, single deep round pans for tortes, pans
in a wide variety of fancy shapes for special -occasion cakes. These belong
in a kitchen set only if you have enough use for them to warrant the
investment, and a place to keep them so that they will not take up room
needed for more important utensils.
• Cooling racks.
A cooling rack is a useful item of cake-making equip-
ment. A cake cools evenly on a rack and the crust doesn't sweat and
peel off as it often does if the cake is cooled on a solid surface. A cake
on a rack is easy to handle, too. Cake racks are inexpensive, and once
they are in your kitchen you will use them for cooling all sorts of baked
products and as stands to protect table tops from hot utensils.
Cooling racks have heavy wire frames shaped at the corners to provide
supports that hold the rack a half inch or so above the table. The wires
that form the rack may be crisscross or they all may run in one direction.
Racks are commonly almost square—from 9 to 11 inches across, a good
size and shape for general use. Racks of the same size will nest for storage
so that two take up little more space than one.

Piepans, left to right, of dull aluminum, enamel, embossed tin, glass, and
aluminum. Pan at right has juice-catching rim. Patty pans are tin.
To be good, a pie must have a well-baked bottom crust. This means
that piepans should be of materials that absorb heat readily. Aluminum
with a special dull finish is good, and so is glass. Tinware must become
darkened before it will bake undercrusts well.
Size of piepans is designated by the inside top diameter, usually ex-
pressed in the nearest even inch measure. The common sizes are 8, 9, or
10 inches, though there are 7%- and 8% -inch pans. A few are larger and
there are little ones 4 to 5 inches in diameter for individual pies or tarts.
The usual depth for 8- to 10-inch pans is 1 to \\}{ inches, but extra-deep
ones can be had.
Some piepans have juice-catching rims, designed to keep juices from
boiling over into the oven.
Pans for breads
• Loo I pans.
Loaf pans are needed for yeast breads and for quick
breads, such as nut or orange bread. They are used also for pound and
fruit cakes and for meat loaf and similar dishes. Some homemakers
find that one loaf pan is enough, but anyone who bakes good-sized batches
of bread will need several.
If you like bread brown and crusty, choose dull aluminum or glass pans.
Bread baked in bright pans will be lighter in color on the bottom. If the loaf
pan is to be used for cakes as well as bread you may prefer the bright pan.

Loaf pans come in a wide variety of dimensions. Good standard
sizes are 8% by 4/
by 2% inches; 9K by 5}i by 2%; and 10 by 5 by
3 inches.
• Cooky sheet.
The pan called a cooky sheet is good also for baking
rolls, biscuits, cream puffs—anything stiff enough not to require a pan
with sides. Because the pan has no sides, hot air can circulate directly
over the food to brown it evenly.
A cooky sheet always has at least one turned-up edge so that you can
get hold of it easily, and at least one open side to permit you to slide the
food off.
Aluminum is the material most commonly used for cooky sheets, though
tin is also satisfactory.
When you buy a cooky sheet be sure it is enough smaller than your
oven so that there will be at least an inch on every side of it for circula-
tion of heat. Standard sizes arc 14 by 10, 15% by 12, and 17 by 14
• Muffin pans.
Muffin pans, like cooky sheets, can serve several
purposes. They are commonly used for cupcakes, rolls, and tart shells
as well as for muffins.
Size of muffin pans is designated in two ways—by the size of each cup
and by the number of cups in each pan. Cups vary widely in dimensions.
For general use a medium-sized cup is good—one about 2/2 inches in
diameter by \\}{ inches in depth, or 3 inches wide and \\% inches deep.
You may find muffin pans with 6, 9, or 12 cups. Which to choose
depends upon the size of
your family and their ap-
petites. Two pans of 6
cups each cost a little
more than one 12-cup pan.
but they are more adapt-
able to different purposes
and different occasions.
Aluminum and tinware,
the materials most com-
monly used for muffin pans,
are both good.
The fewer the creases in
muffin pans the easier the
pans will be to wash. Some
are pressed from sheet alu-
minum and are entirely free
from ridges or seams where
cup and frame meet.
Pans for baking breads, muffins, biscuits.

Correctly speaking, roasting is cooking in the oven in an uncovered pan,
without water. It is recommended for tender meats and poultry. Add-
ing water or covering the pan is much the same as pot roasting and is of
advantage only with less tender meats. Before deciding to invest in a
covered roaster, give the open-pan method a trial—unless your oven is
one that you cannot control at a steady low temperature.
For open-pan roasting, any kind of pan large enough for the meat and
deep enough to hold the drippings can be used. A pan about 14 by 10
by 2 inches is a good size for most roasts. It is useful too for such things
as baked apples, an iced-in-the-pan cake to take to a pot-luck supper,
or a large quantity of scalloped potatoes.
A trivet or rack that fits into the pan is needed to hold meat up out of
the drippings and let hot air circulate around it. The rack may have
handles to help in lifting the roast from the pan. A V-shaped rack is
especially good for poultry.
In covered roasters you have a choice of enameledware, often the dark-
colored kind, or aluminum. Size is usually designated by the weight of
roast the pan will hold. A roaster just large enough for the usual roast
won't accommodate the big, special-occasion turkey. On the other hand,
a roaster big enough for any need will be cumbersome for ordinary use
and will monopolize the oven so that very little else can be baked at the
same time.
Be sure that a covered roaster has good handles.
Covered roaster, left, is shown with rack that adjusts to wide or narrow
V-shape for supporting roast. Open roaster, right, has flat rack.

Casseroles, custard cups, pudding pans
• Casseroles.
A casserole is a convenient utensil for baking many
kinds of main dishes and desserts. To be most widely useful the dish
should have a cover.
Since the casserole goes to the table, its appearance is especially im-
portant. Glass and pottery, which are attractive and hold heat well, are
most used. Some pans of stainless steel and enameledware are designed
for oven-to-table use. Both casserole and cover need handles that can
be grasped firmly with pot holders.
Casseroles are made in a wide variety of sizes. The 2-quart size
s a
useful one for families of four to six.
• Custard cups.
Designed primarily for baking custards, these cups
serve many other purposes. They are useful as miniature mixing bowls,
as refrigerator dishes, and as molds for desserts and salads. They may
be used for baking pop-overs and for individual servings of scalloped
dishes, though broader, flatter dishes or ramekins are easier to eat from.
Custard cups are usually of glass or pottery; a few are of enameledware.
• Pudding pans.
Pudding pans can be used for any of the purposes
for which an uncovered casserole is used. They are useful too on top
of the range since they are most often of enameledware, or sometimes of
aluminum or stainless steel, and are handy for washing and preparing
fruits and vegetables.
Pudding pans come in sizes from 6 to 12 inches in diameter, from 1 to
6 quarts in capacity. A 9-inch size is good for general use,
Covered casseroles, open pudding pans, and individual custard cups are
used frequently for the baking of main dishes and desserts.

A set of kitchen utensils
The following lists—including food preparation and dishwashing
equipment as well as pots and pans—may help the homemaker who is
equipping a kitchen, adding new utensils, or making replacements. The
lists were developed from the experience of homemakers as shown by a
recent survey. Utensils used at least once a week in at least half the
homes are starred (*). These make up a minimum set. A recommended
set includes the other pieces, which were used by at least a quarter of the
women. If you have still others that you use often, they belong in your
The pictures on these two pages include all utensils listed. The pieces
were chosen to show variety in materials and designs. You may prefer
other materials or designs for your utensils.

Pans for range-top and oven use
*1 coffee maker, size and type to suit family
*1 double boiler
*1 fry pan, 10- to 12-inch diameter
*1 fry pan, 8-inch diameter
1 griddle
*1 kettle with lid, 8 quart
*1 saucepan, 1 quart
1 saucepan, 3-cup to 3-quart capacity as
*1 saucepan, 3 quart
*1 saucepan or saucepot, 4 quart
1 teakettle
*1 teapot
1 baking pan, about 10 by 14 inches
1 bread pan
*2 cake pans, layer, 8 or 9 inch
1 cake pan, square, 8 or 9 inch
*1 casserole with lid
*1 cooky sheet
1 cooky sheet (additional)
*1 cooling rack
1 cooling rack (additional)
*6 custard cups
1 muffin pan, 8 to 1 2 cup
*2 piepans
*1 pudding pan, 9 inch
1 roaster

Tools for food preparation and dishwashing
*1 beater, rotary
*1 bottle and jar opener
*1 can opener (for tin cans)
*1 colander
*1 cutting board
1 flour sifter
1 food chopper (crank type)
1 food mincer (blade type)
1 food press
*1 fork, 2 tines, long handle
1 grater and shredder set
*1 knife, bread or slicing, 8-inch blade
*1 knife, butcher, 7- or 8-inch blade
*1 knife, case
*1 knife, paring
*1 knife sharpener
*1 ladle
*1 measure, 1 cup
*1 measure, 1 pint
'1 measure, 1 quart
*1 sef measures, 14,
' 1
*1 mixing bowl, 1 pint
Index to pots and pans
Materials for cooking utensils —
Mass -
Pans for oven use —
bread pans
cake pans
custard CUDS
.. 5
. . 3, 4
. . 26
. 29
. 29
Pans for oven use — Continued
Utensils for range-top use- —
double boilers
waterless cookers .
*1 mixing bowl, 1 quart
*1 mixing bowl, 2 quart
*1 mixing bowl, 4 quart
*1 orange or fruit juicer or reamer
*1 pan, round, 1 2 inch
*1 potato or food masher
*1 rolling pin
*1 spatula, 7-inch blade
*1 spoon, basting, long handle
*1 spoon, perforated mixing, long handle
*1 spoon, wooden, 11 inch
1 spoon, wooden, 1 5 inch
*1 set spoons, measuring
*1 strainer to fit top of cup
*1 strainer, medium size, medium mesh
*1 turner, pancake, long handle
*1 dish drainer
*1 dishpan
*1 pan to fit under dish drainer or second
*1 sink strainer
*1 vegetable brush
,'^Pr\\pared by: Elizabeth Beveridge
Lay-out and art work: Katharine J. Burdeits
Photography: Albert Candida
Agricultural Research Administration
U. S. Department of Agriculture
August 1950
U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1 9 5 0
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, D. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 10 cents